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MISE EN VALEUR AGRICOLE DE LA VALLEE DE L’OUEME DANS LA COMMUNE DE BONOU : DIAGNOSTIC ET TRAJECTOIRE

Abstract : Nowadays, the agricultural valorization of the valley of Ouémé appears in Benin, as the best alternative to save the agriculture which is under the combined influence of the sagging of the soil fertility and the pluviometric fluctuations. The current study is a contribution to the examination of the potentialities and constraints with the agricultural development of the valley of Ouémé in the district of Bonou. For this work, the climatological data used affect the heights of rains, the minimal and maximum temperatures, the potential evapotranspiration, and the relative dampness over the period 1971-2010. Five main cultivations were selected according to their importance in the foodstuffs of the local populations. The farming ratio of these crops are used to calculate their requirements out of water by phenologic phase in order to compare them with the decadal quantities of water obtained in the district. The collected pedological data are made up of the samples of ground taken in the pedological profiles opened for this purpose. These samples made the object of analysis at the Laboratory of Sciences of the Ground, Water and Environment (LSSEE). The results of the analysis are used to establish the physicochemical characteristics of the grounds in order to compare them with the edaphic requirements of the main crops. This made it possible to determine the farming aptitudes of the soils. The data on the modes of exploitation of the soils were used to examine these modes in connection with the aptitude of the grounds and the constraints of the area. Socio-economic informations made it possible to understand the farming systems and the agricultural strategies of the peasants. The district of Bonou has a subequatorial climate which offers two rain agricultural seasons on the tray and a possibility of culture of slack season in the depression. Indeed, it has two morphological units: depression/plain of flood (37 %) and the tray (63 %). The depression is composed of hydromorphic grounds and the tray, of the ferrallitic grounds. These pedological formations are generally favorable to several cultures but have constraints. On the hydromorphic grounds, the rate of clay is high with a bad permeability and a compactness of these grounds. One assists on these grounds with a bad decomposition of the organic matter, a small quantity of potassium and especially, an acid pH, anything having negative impacts on the agricultural outputs. The ferrallitic grounds present a shortage in potassium (K) and in phosphorus (P). A lack of rains on these grounds leads to the fall of the agricultural outputs. Agriculture is primarily practiced in two types of exploitations namely, the family exploitations for the food crops (80 %) and some large exploitations (20 %). This agriculture is prone to several other constraints which relate, in other words, to pluvio-hydrological instability (dryness or flood), the falling of fertility of the grounds, the ignorance by the producers of the specific aptitudes of the grounds, the painfulness of works on the hydromorphic grounds, the problem of availability of the agricultural lands, the scarcity of labour, the lack of synergy between the various projects and programs initiated by the State. Facing the constraints, several strategies are adopted by the producers. It is in particular about the fallow (75 %), the ridging (90 %), the improving cultures (75 %), the traditional preparation of the insecticides (25 %), the making of large and broad balks in the depression (80 %), the opening of the discharge culverts of rising water in the depression (95 %), use of motor-driven pump for the irrigation of the fields in dry season (25 %)… This study proposes other alternatives to reinforce what the peasants have already done in the adaptation of the constraints with the development of the valley.
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https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-03786960
Contributor : J. Barnabé HOUNKANRIN Connect in order to contact the contributor
Submitted on : Friday, September 23, 2022 - 6:29:45 PM
Last modification on : Saturday, September 24, 2022 - 3:22:19 AM

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J. Barnabé Hounkanrin. MISE EN VALEUR AGRICOLE DE LA VALLEE DE L’OUEME DANS LA COMMUNE DE BONOU : DIAGNOSTIC ET TRAJECTOIRE. Géographie. Université d'Abomey-Calavi (Bénin), 2015. Français. ⟨tel-03786960⟩

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