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L'architecture monumentale à l'époque nationale-socialiste : la tentative d'un retour aux formes fondamentales dans l'architecture d'Etat

Abstract : As early as 1934, the official National-Socialist architecture takes a stand which sets it apart from ail things past, bringing out the very peculiar monumentality of the period. Analyzing the characteristics and the sources of this state architecture during the early years of the Third Reich, constitutes the main theme of the present thesis. P.L. Troost, who designed the first buildings of the Party in Munich, Ernst Sagebiel, author of the Tempelhof Airport and Göring's Ministry in Berlin, Hans Reissinger who designed a building with a composite envelop meant for the Reich teachers' Association in Bayreuth, and finally Ludwig and F. Ruff who designed a gigantic hall to accommodate the Party's conventions in Nuremberg, are the architects who se works are being reviewed. Their buildings present monumental forms which are quite remote from simplistic neo-classical references. These works are marked by great representational demands and yet, in some cases, they also respond to functionality in a highly efficient way. This study of the chosen buildings attempts to observe, from the moment of conception through the evolution of sketches and models, an ever-increasing monumentality: the establishment of a mode of composition favoring organizing symmetries of plans and elevations and the final embellishment of the facades with added-on elements, the reached-for effect being always more important than any other consideration. A sculptured iconography glorifying the regime and the Reich, with its signs, symbols and freezes, completes this setting. The concept of a German tectonic, so privileged by historians of the regime, expressing the essence of this official architecture in its search for original forms, is therefore examined in detail, revealing the roots it refers to: at its center is a newly-recreated mythical Germany as cradle of the universe. The analysis of the chosen buildings is thus first architectural, then completed by examining the editorial apparatus which has ensured its official presentation during the Third Reich. On the other hand, the numerous publications spurred by this architecture in Germany since the 1970's, have also been taken into account.
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Anne-Marie Fourcade. L'architecture monumentale à l'époque nationale-socialiste : la tentative d'un retour aux formes fondamentales dans l'architecture d'Etat. Histoire. Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - Paris I, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013PA010658⟩. ⟨tel-03750469⟩

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