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L’impact des politiques de développement sur l’adaptation pastorale : le cas du delta du fleuve Sénégal

Abstract : This thesis aims to question the way in which development policies, principally those related to agriculture, impact the adaptation to climate change of livestock farmers in the Senegal River delta. The first part of the thesis examines the concept of adaptation to climate change in the perspective of the institutional globalisation of the concept. Based on a critical analysis of different definitions of adaptation, we have shown how important it is to consider the political dimension of adaptation, as it should not be analysed solely in relation to climatic factors. These considerations led us to discuss different concepts, such as development and politics, as well as the relevance of certain tools for our study (geohistory, discourse analysis and locks). In a second part, we have highlighted the singularity of pastoralism in the Sahelian area. In addition to the various existing forms, the most important aspect is that pastoralism in the Sahel has demonstrated a capacity to adapt to strong climatic variations. So, the pastoralism in the Sahel have a capacity to respond to the expected consequences of climate change. In addition, we have shown the weaknesses of livestock policies and adaptation in Senegal. This has further emphasized the need to apprehend the consequences of public policies that have an impact in terms of resource management. We have thus shown that there is a political trajectory driven by French settlers that has led to significant environmental changes impacting the adaptive capacity of livestock farmers. Also, our review of current policies that have an impact on pastoral resources has shown that they do not always guarantee the protection of these resources, even if some try to regulate them. Moreover, they sometimes create obstacles to pastoral mobility, which is the basis of the adaptation strategy of herders in the Sahelian area. In a third part, the discursive analysis highlighted the imposition of a discourse, somewhat self-fulfilling, on agribusiness and inclusive growth, as well as on land as a key driver for the establishment of these agribusinesses. We also identified the presence of a discourse on the environment that does not significantly orient the programs analyzed. However, it is used as a justification by the institutions supporting policies aimed at increasing so-called productive activities. Moreover, the study of the dissemination of these discourses has made it possible to illustrate interactions between various actors (notably the World Bank, the African Development Bank and the Senegalese state), and power relations that influence and frame the conception of the relationship with the environment, as well as the actors who benefit from it. These winners are agribusinesses, the "heroes" of an enchanting discourse, in which they enable a redistribution of wealth. Finally, the study of the path of dependence revealed a locking of the delta's agricultural trajectory in favour of irrigated agriculture as a vector of growth. This trajectory is therefore anchored in the Western epistemic conception of the trajectory of societies. However, this implies, beyond a limitation of the pastoral adaptation capacity, an exclusion of pastoralism as it is, and a questioning of its capacity to adapt to climate change.
Keywords : Lock-in
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Julien Meunier. L’impact des politiques de développement sur l’adaptation pastorale : le cas du delta du fleuve Sénégal. Géographie. Université de Paris, 2020. Français. ⟨NNT : 2020UNIP7116⟩. ⟨tel-03244745⟩

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