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Dynamique d'échange de la dynamine mesurée dans les cellules vivantes pendant la formation de vésicules d'endocytose

Abstract : Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME), the formation of clathrin-coated vesicles (CCV) from the plasma membrane, is an essential process in eukaryotic cells. During CME, the GTPase dynamin is recruited to the neck of nascent CCV where it oligomerizes into helical filaments. Conformational changes induced by the hydrolysis of GTP catalyze the scission of the vesicle neck. This process has been studied in detail with in vitro reconstitution on membrane tubules but it needs to be established in living cells, where interactions between dynamin and other proteins such as amphiphysin are critical. Live cell total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) imaging with the pulsed pH (ppH) assay allows the detection of CCV formation with high spatial (~100 nm) and temporal (2 s) resolutions. It has revealed that dynamin is recruited to maturing clathrin-coated pits (CCP) in two phases with a peak at the time of scission but the parameters of its recruitment in living cells remain unclear. To determine these parameters, we have performed live cell imaging of dynamin recruitment at collective and single molecule levels during acute perturbations of its function. My PhD results showed that dynamin is recruited to the plasma membrane, diffuses outside of CCP and is trapped at CCP. Furthermore, we determined with mutated dynamins that (1) the PRD domain of dynamin is crucial for its recruitment at CCP; (2) the PH domain is important for vesicular scission but not for recruitment to CCP or to the plasma membrane. Finally, I observed that dynamin exchanges with an extra-CCP pool at all times: this would allow for its further recruitment by addition of new binding sites and its ability to narrow the vesicle neck after GTP hydrolysis. Altogether, these data suggest that in CCP dynamin molecules (1) are constantly exchanged; (2) diffuse at similar rates throughout the entire process of vesicle formation, from maturation until scission; and (3) that dynamin’s GTPase activity contributes to CCP maturation and scission.
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Submitted on : Saturday, April 17, 2021 - 1:01:09 AM
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Léa Claverie. Dynamique d'échange de la dynamine mesurée dans les cellules vivantes pendant la formation de vésicules d'endocytose. Neurosciences [q-bio.NC]. Université de Bordeaux, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019BORD0053⟩. ⟨tel-03200912⟩

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