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Contributions à l'analyse économique de la congestion des transports urbains

Abstract : The economic analysis of urban transport congestion today suffers from at least two 'blind spots': a) a good measure of the contribution of freight transport to the loss of time on the roads; b) study of congestion in public transport and the resulting collective losses. The first part of this manuscript synthesizes the contributions of several articles that have addressed these two phenomena. We first present the 'Pigouvian' theoretical framework which was originally transposed to the estimation of the welfare losses linked to the underpricing of the externality of discomfort in the subways. This model is then extended to the analysis of road congestion in a multi-class setting, when trucks and LCVs share the road with cars. We consider both the loss of time suffered by road users, linked to excessive traffic compared to the economic optimum, as well as the 'excess emissions' of pollutants caused by lower speeds. We then describe the empirical strategies developed to bring out the congestion functions necessary for the resolution of theoretical models. Regarding road congestion, we propose econometric estimates using individual data and we combine the results of various modeling tools (of traffic and pollutant emissions). The costs - private and external - of a given type of vehicle are increasing functions of the flow of similar vehicles, but also of the volume of other vehicles on the roads. Regarding congestion in public transport, we study the 'declared preferences' of Paris metro users who have been confronted with hypothetical trade-offs between more or less fast and more or less comfortable journeys. Econometric analysis confirms that the subjective value of time increases with the density of passengers in the trains. Our main results are as follows. While they represent 8% of the distances traveled in Ile-de-France, freight vehicles account for 40% of collective well-being and 30% of the environmental cost attributable to road traffic. We offer pricing schemes for cars, LCVs and / or trucks, aimed at limiting collective losses linked to the overuse of infrastructure. In the case of Parisian metros, we show that there are about 9% of travelers 'in excess' compared to the optimum. If the social losses linked to the underpricing of this congestion are currently limited, they could quickly increase and the external cost is high, compared to the environmental costs of cars in particular. In the end, the methods and parameters proposed in our articles 'equip' researchers and practitioners interested in the socioeconomic evaluation of urban transport projects.
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Habilitation à diriger des recherches
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Submitted on : Thursday, January 14, 2021 - 10:12:06 AM
Last modification on : Friday, January 15, 2021 - 3:30:05 AM


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  • HAL Id : tel-03109918, version 1



Martin Koning. Contributions à l'analyse économique de la congestion des transports urbains. Autre. Université Lumière Lyon 2, 2020. ⟨tel-03109918⟩



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