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Pour une perspective sociale de l'écologie industrielle et territoriale (EIT) : mécanismes d'action collective, processus d'apprentissage, création de valeur territoriale. Une mise en récit à partir des démarches d'EIT dans la municipalité régionale de comté (MRC) du Kamouraska et au port Atlantique de La Rochelle

Abstract : Based on a human-centered principle of industrial ecology (IE), which exceeds technological approaches, this thesis analyzes the technical, human, social and organizational factors conditioning the implementation and sustainability of industrial synergies. It investigates the intertwinement of such factors in fostering a collaborative project. Through a case study approach, it contrasts the project coordinated in the Municipalité régionale de comté (Quebec, Canada) with the one unfolding at Port Atlantique La Rochelle (France). Our main research question is: How do the territory, the actor’s networks, the industrial synergies and the benefits impact IE’s implementation? To address it, the study underlines new theoretical and empirical perspectives regarding the four key notions of industrial ecology: territory, actors’ network, industrial synergies and benefits. More precisely, the thesis explores individual and organisational behavior as a major lever or trigger for project implementation. IE are considered as space of collective action, of co-learning, and creation of what is understood as territorial value. The methodological approach is based on participative observations, on network analysis, on semi-directive interviews and on documentary analysis. finding and awareness of social phenomena that occur within actors' ecosystems in order to help of socio-political understanding of industrial symbioses. Intensive fieldwork was conducted both in Québec and in France over a period of almost two years (2017-2019). A total of 40 respondents were interviewed: 15 in France and 25 in Quebec.Our results focus on the idea that IE’s implementation is largely depending on an endogenization of territory. The geographical proximity between actors constitutes a critical factor for the success of the process. Proximity is in fact determining the territorial dynamics. It highlights the local potential of natural resources, and conditions the perception of risks within the sectors of activity of the companies. Our results also demonstrate the importance of relational and interactionist processes regarding the projects implementation and monitoring. In fact, our study stretches how stakeholder’s participation and trust, the influence of public/political agenda, and the governance mechanisms are key factors in determining how the industrial ecology project will unfold. Furthermore, the thesis contributes to the theoretical analysis of industrial ecology by assessing its benefits in terms of rather immaterial dimensions. By exploring the global results and going beyond the quantitative spin-offs of the projects in France and in Québec, we find how exchanges of flows foster social learning and collective opportunities regarding contemporary ecological issues.Finally, this research helps to increase a social perspective in designing and understanding industrial ecology. Our research emphasizes the importance of IE’s institutionalization (territorial planning, incentive measures, legal and institutional framework). It underscores how it is conditioned by collective processes, intentionality, and technical and economic interdependencies between stakeholders. Industrial ecology deserves to be managed as a process of territorial development and social innovation.
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Chedrak Chembessi. Pour une perspective sociale de l'écologie industrielle et territoriale (EIT) : mécanismes d'action collective, processus d'apprentissage, création de valeur territoriale. Une mise en récit à partir des démarches d'EIT dans la municipalité régionale de comté (MRC) du Kamouraska et au port Atlantique de La Rochelle. Géographie. Université de Limoges; Université Laval (Québec, Canada), 2020. Français. ⟨NNT : 2020LIMO0019⟩. ⟨tel-02989108⟩

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