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L’impact de la tarification des réseaux et des politiques de soutien sur le développement de l’autoconsommation photovoltaïque

Abstract : Over the past ten years, the public authorities have supported the photovoltaic industry to meet greenhouse gas emission reduction targets. The support policies have resulted in unprecedented development of this sector, leading to a significant reduction in production costs. This trend combined with the increase of the retail rates enabled to reach the grid parity in some European countries. Households are now encouraged to invest in a photovoltaic power plant in order to consume a part of their consumption. These households are called prosumers. The photovoltaic investment depends mainly on the grid pricing. This tariff is based mainly on the energy withdrawal from the grid. However, this kind of tariff does not reflect the costs of the electricity grid operators, which are mainly fixed in the short and medium term. The drop in revenue due to self-consumption leads to a deficit for the grid operators, which must be covered by an increase in the grid tariff. This situation leads to cross-subsidies from standard consumers to self-consumers.The objective of this thesis is to answer this problem and it consists of 4 chapters. In the first chapter, an analysis of policies supporting self-consumption was carried out for the following countries: Germany, the United Kingdom, Denmark, Spain and France. This study is based on bibliographical and documentary research to identify the strengths and weaknesses of these policies. In the second chapter, we study the indirect costs of the self-consumption development for the consumers. For this purpose, an estimate of cross-subsidies in France between 2017 and 2021 is proposed. This estimate is based on the calculation of the volumes of self-consumption aggregated at the national level by modelling the load curves of different consumers and company profiles. In Chapter 3, the current support mechanism is evaluated according to two criteria, namely the revenue generated by self-consumption and the support costs for the ratepayers. A simulation model has been developed to determine the profitability of a photovoltaic installation coupled with a battery under different grid tariffs. In chapter 4, an estimation of the profits related to the self-supply is made. A battery charge optimisation model has been developed with the objective of maximising the revenue from the consumption savings for the prosumer.The thesis shows that self-consumption support policies have neglected the indirect costs related to network pricing. It is necessary to modify the grid pricing in order, on the one hand, to limit cross-subsidies and, on the other hand, to take advantage of the benefits that self-consumption can bring to the network. Signals need to be sent in order to increase the value of self-consumption. Nevertheless, this is only possible by changing the current subsidy scheme, which does not encourage battery adoption. The results show that a premium for battery investment would limit the cross-subsidies but would limit the development of self-consumption.
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Submitted on : Thursday, October 22, 2020 - 6:18:07 PM
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Olivier Rebenaque. L’impact de la tarification des réseaux et des politiques de soutien sur le développement de l’autoconsommation photovoltaïque. Economies et finances. Université Grenoble Alpes [2020-..], 2020. Français. ⟨NNT : 2020GRALE003⟩. ⟨tel-02975581⟩

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