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L'enrichissement protéique et les paramètres du procédé influencent-ils la structure chimique, les propriétés d'usage, la digestibilité et l'efficacité métabolique des fractions protéiques de spécialités pastières à base de légumineuses ?

Abstract : In order to reinforce our knowledge about the links between structural and nutritional properties of pasta, pasta with contrasting structures were produced by modifying the formulation and/or the manufacturing process. Pasta structure was then characterized using a multiscale approach and linked to the digestibility of protein and starch fractions. The modification of pasta formulation by partial or total substitution of durum wheat semolina by legume flours changed pasta structure at various scales. A marked weakening in the structure of pasta protein network proportional to the level of legume protein incorporated was observed and related to an improvement of the in-vitro digestibility of pasta proteins. Interestingly the in-vitro starch digestibility was maintained at its low level or even reduced in mixed pasta. Changing pasta drying temperature amplified changes in the pasta structure. These differences, however, were reduced after cooking pasta resulting in unchanged in-vitro protein digestibility between cooked pasta dried at low or very high temperature. Anti-nutritional factors were also reduced by the manufacturing and cooking steps. In-vivo study revealed a better growth and nitrogen efficiency in rats consuming the same quantity of proteins from wheat/faba (65/35) mixed pasta in comparison with animals fed with 100% wheat pasta. This was probably related to the better amino acid balance, and to the weakened protein network in mixed pasta. The change in drying temperatures did not allow modifying protein retention. Pasta developed in this thesis are up to three fold richer in proteins than traditional wheat pasta, and more balanced in essential amino acids. Produced pasta are appreciated by the consumer as well as their counterparts found on the marked. Mixed wheat/legume may be adapted to the elderly people, whereas 100% legume pasta may be consumed by gluten intolerant subjects. Produced pasta may therefore find wide application at the industrial scale.
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Karima Laleg. L'enrichissement protéique et les paramètres du procédé influencent-ils la structure chimique, les propriétés d'usage, la digestibilité et l'efficacité métabolique des fractions protéiques de spécialités pastières à base de légumineuses ?. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université d'Auvergne - Clermont-Ferrand I, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016CLF1MM17⟩. ⟨tel-02917960⟩

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