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Potentialisation des effets de composés phénoliques combinés de l’huile d’olive : étude des transformations rédox : application dans les maladies neurodégénératives

Abstract : Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases (AD and PD) are neurodegenerative disorders leading to cognitive function decline and curative treatments are still missing. Olive oil and related phenolic compounds consumption could prevent or slow down cognitive decline through neuronal preservation. Indeed, they have direct antioxidant properties as electrons or H-atom donors, which are largely suspected of being responsible for their biological effects, but also of some indirect properties as modulators of endogenous antioxidant defenses. The secoiridoid oleuropein and the monophenols tyrosol and p-coumaric acid have shown abilities to counteract oxidative injuries and associated neuronal death in several cellular and in vivo models. However, the basic mechanisms of action of phenolic compounds remain to be elucidated. In fact, phenolic compounds are highly sensitive to oxidative modifications and could be transformed into new compounds in an oxidative context. Cellular impacts of these products are rarely considered, probably because their intracellular detection is a great challenge and remain an important field to explore. Moreover, oleuropein, tyrosol and p-coumaric were individually evaluated in order to characterize their own reactivity towards ROS and their biological properties. However, the concentration ranges used to observe neuroprotection in cellular models (5 – 100 µM) were far from the possibly recovered phenolic concentration in plasma (0.5 - 2,8 ng /ml of plasma). To observe an effect with concentration range closer to the physiological ones, several antioxidant combinations could be proposed. Nevertheless, despite the biological promises of phenolic compounds from olive oil, studies which combined some of the most abundant phenolic compounds in the neuroprotection field is still missing. We thus hypothesized that the combination of oleuropein, tyrosol and p-coumaric acid in equimolar proportion (Mix 1) could potentiated their ROS scavenging and neuroprotective properties to counteract oxidative stress-induced neuronal death. These effects could be in part due to their oxidized metabolites. First, we demonstrated that the association of these three phenolic compounds potentiated their neuroprotective effects with efficient concentrations at 0.1 and 1µM, contrary to concentration ranges when there are used individually (5 to 10 higher). The Mix1 increase the reactivity of phenolic compounds towards ROS and decreases their intracellular production. These neuroprotective properties seems, at least in part, lead by a regulation of the endogenous redox factors. Then, we compared the behavior of Oleuropein, tyrosol and p-coumaric acid individually and in the Mix1 under acellular oxidative conditions. The oxidized Mix1 LC-ESI-MS2 profiles showed a regeneration of oleuropein through a decrease of the phenolic compounds oxidation rate and highlight the presence of specific oxidized products in Mix 1. This study also showed a significant neuroprotection of oxidized Ole and oxidized Mix1 with very low concentrations (1 and 5 nM), suggesting the putative relevant role of oxidized Ole products to protect or delay neuronal death. Our third objective was to evaluate if these oxidized metabolites could be produced in a biological system. Even under oxidative conditions, we recovered these compounds in cellular extracts under their native forms after few hours of treatments, attesting their accumulation in neuronal cells. Taking together, our results pointed out the relevance to study the phenolic compounds from a chemical and a biological point of view, which should always be as cellular redox reactions are between biological and chemical fields. Lastly, we confirmed the significance to take into account the oxidized metabolites from phenolic compounds to deeper understand their biological properties.
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Morgane Lambert de Malezieu. Potentialisation des effets de composés phénoliques combinés de l’huile d’olive : étude des transformations rédox : application dans les maladies neurodégénératives. Chimie analytique. Université Rennes 1; Institut national de la recherche scientifique (Québec, province), 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019REN1S044⟩. ⟨tel-02429353v2⟩

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