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Utilisation de centres NV comme capteurs de champs magnétiques à haute pression dans des cellules à enclumes de diamant

Abstract : Pressure is a physical variable that alters structural, electronic and magnetic interactions in all materials. Reaching high pressure is thus a way to create new materials such as superconductors with record critical temperatures. High pressures can be enabled through the use of diamond anvil cells (DAC), which can attain pressures of several hundred of GPa. It is however quite a challenge to measure magnetic properties of materials inside a DAC because of the very small sample volume available and of technical constraints. In this PhD thesis, we demonstrate the use of a magnetometry method based on the electronic spin resonance of NV centers in diamond. These NV centers are fabricated directly on top of one of the DAC anvils, which places them in contact with the magnetic sample.In the first chapter, we describe how the DAC works and we present the different ways of probing magnetic properties that have been developed for high pressure conditions. We then explain the operating principle of NV magnetometry and use this method to measure the magnetization of a micro-magnet at ambient pressure. The sensitivity of this measure is comparable to that of SQUID magnetometry. In the third chapter, we discuss how mechanical constraints modify the spin resonance of the NV center, and describe how this effect combines with the influence of an external magnetic field. By decoupling these two effects, we can observe the magnetic phase transition of iron around 15 to 30 GPa, which is displayed in the fourth chapter. Finally, the last chapter briefly presents the context and stakes associated with the synthesis of superconducting superhydrides with high critical temperature. We perform an optical detection of a superconducting phase inside a DAC with NV centers through the observation of the Meissner effect in MgB2 at a pressure of 7 GPa and with a critical temperature of 30 K.
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Loïc Toraille. Utilisation de centres NV comme capteurs de champs magnétiques à haute pression dans des cellules à enclumes de diamant. Physique [physics]. Université Paris Saclay (COmUE), 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019SACLN056⟩. ⟨tel-02429177v2⟩

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