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Etude de l’influence du stroma BRCA1 muté sur les étapes précoces de transformation tumorale dans le modèle du cancer du sein

Abstract : The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of a BRCA1 heterozygous haplo-deficient microenvironment in the early events of tumour transformation of breast cancer. For this purpose we modeled a BRCA1-mutated stroma using mesenchymal stem / stromal cells (MSCs) obtained by differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from a patient carrying the mutation (MSCs BRCA1+/-). These BRCA1-mutated cells were compared to MSCs without the mutation (MSCs BRCA1+/+) generated from iPSCs BRCA1+/+. This study focuses on two aspects of BRCA1-mutated stroma, namely the pro-angiogenic properties of BRCA1+/- MSCs and the induction of an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) on normal breast cells (HME1).We have shown that BRCA1-mutated MSCs exhibit enhanced pro-angiogenic properties by overexpressing the hypoxic factor HIF-1α and factors from VEGF, PDGF and Angpt families resulting in increased capacities to form vascular structures in vitro and in vivo. BRCA1-mutated MSCs exhibit also higher migratory capabilities by production and secretion of periostin (POSTN), an extracellular matrix protein, which is involved in cell adhesion, motility and migration. These capacities have been validated by a specific siRNA approach for POSTN. In vivo, the coinjection of BRCA1-mutated MSCs with murine breast cancer cell line (4T1-Luc-GFP) promotes tumour growth and the formation of lung metastases. These results are correlated with in situ POSTN detection and with the formation of a developed tumour vascular network, quantified by CD34 staining. We also demonstrated that supernatant of BRCA1+/- MSCs can induce an EMT on HME1 cells by promoting the acquisition of stemness properties (CD24Low/CD44High) and accelerating their migration. Finally we initiated the in vitro production of mammary organoids using MSCs and HME1 in order to study more precisely the molecular mechanisms of this EMT after contact and possible early events of the malignant transformation. These results indicate that MSCs can participate to tumour initiation and metastatic progression in heterozygous BRCA1-mutated background. POSTN could represent a prognostic marker and a therapeutic target for these hereditary breast cancers.
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Lucie Portier. Etude de l’influence du stroma BRCA1 muté sur les étapes précoces de transformation tumorale dans le modèle du cancer du sein. Cancer. Université Paris Saclay (COmUE), 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017SACLS501⟩. ⟨tel-02410781⟩

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