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Theses

Étude de la perfusion cérébrale par Arterial Spin Labeling en IRM à 1.5T chez le nouveau-né et l’enfant

Maïa Proisy 1
1 VisAGeS - Vision, Action et Gestion d'informations en Santé
INSERM - Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale : U1228, Inria Rennes – Bretagne Atlantique , IRISA-D5 - SIGNAUX ET IMAGES NUMÉRIQUES, ROBOTIQUE
Abstract : Physiological changes in overall and regional cerebral perfusion are related to age and neurocognitive development. Brain perfusion in the pediatric population can be assessed using a number of imaging techniques. Two literature reviews were undertaken and published on this topic: one based on brain perfusion imaging techniques in neonates, and the other based on the ASL technique in the pediatric population and its clinical applications. The Arterial Spin Labeling (ASL) MRI perfusion sequence is one of the most suitable imaging techniques for children given that the procedure is non-irradiating and non-invasive (without exogenous contrast agent injection). There are many emerging cerebral perfusion imaging applications for children due to the highly convenient implementation of the ASL sequence, which can be easily incorporated into standard brain MRI protocols following acquisition of morphological images. Certain technical adjustments to the imaging parameters are required to account for the fundamental differences between the pediatric and adult populations. Measuring cerebral blood flow (CBF) in neonates and children using ASL therefore requires a number of adaptations to acquisition and related parameters.The processing of ASL data also requires specific adaptations, in particular regarding the automated segmentation of brain tissues, and the parameters used for CBF quantification models. The processing pipeline for both anatomical and perfusion images that had been previously developed by our team for adult data was adapted firstly for children and secondly for neonates. These two populations notably have specific age-related concerns; in particular the signal-to-noise ratio of ASL is very good in children, but much less so in neonates, and the morphological images have inverted contrast due to incomplete myelination at birth. Following adaptation of the processing pipeline, several studies were completed (2 original articles published and 1 under review), showing the clinical benefits of studying cerebral perfusion in three situations: first physiological changes in cerebral perfusion in children between 6 months and 15 years; secondly changes in cerebral perfusion in children with a first attack of migraine with aura; and lastly changes in brain perfusion between day of life 3 and day of life 10 in asphyxiated neonates. Following adaptation of the processing pipeline, several studies were completed (2 original articles published and 1 under review), showing the clinical benefits of studying cerebral perfusion in three situations: first physiological changes in cerebral perfusion in children between 6 months and 15 years; secondly changes in cerebral perfusion in children with a first attack of migraine with aura; and lastly changes in brain perfusion between day of life 3 and day of life 10 in asphyxiated neonates. Several studies are still in progress, and these present new image processing challenges, involving, for example, children with neurosurgical conditions and morphological changes in the brain, or premature babies, in line with the work undertaken for this thesis.
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Maïa Proisy. Étude de la perfusion cérébrale par Arterial Spin Labeling en IRM à 1.5T chez le nouveau-né et l’enfant. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université Rennes 1, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018REN1B052⟩. ⟨tel-02408336v2⟩

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