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Épidémiologie moléculaire des géminivirus responsables de maladies émergentes sur les cultures maraîchères au Burkina Faso et en Côte d'Ivoire

Abstract : Geminiviruses have emerged to become one of the largest and most economically important groups of plant-infecting viruses, and geminivirus-induced diseases are a major threat to worldwide vegetable production, particularly in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Importantly, the accumulated body of work on some of the most important geminiviral associated diseases clearly demonstrate the role of geminiviruses associated with wild plants on the emergence of disease on imported crops. Moreover, recent metagenomic data suggested that the vast majority of viruses characterized from crops represent only a small fraction of the phytoviruses in general. It is therefore of prime interest to obtain a better knowledge of viral diversity infecting crops and wild plants, the main epidemiological parameters involved in their emergence and their dynamic at the scale of agro-ecological systems. In this work, a survey of solanaceous crop fields and their surrounding uncultivated plants from 48 localities in Burkina Faso and Ivory Coast was performed. The sample analysis using classical molecular biology tools both confirm the incompleteness of our knowledge of the geminivial diversity and the existence of numerous alternative wild host plants. At least five species of begomovirus and mastrevirus were found in association with the ToLCD-TYLCD. A North to South increasing gradient of complexity of viruses populations was uncover with PepYVMLV being the most prevalent on cultivated solanaceous plants. The discovery of the association of a newly described DNA-B component with the PepYVMLV also lead to the study of the epidemiological parameters of this co-infection. Despite this association being relaxed, it was demonstrated that the virulence of the disease, the viral accumulation and the transmission by Bemisia tabaci were increased with the presence of the co-infection with the DNA-B component. All these factors are probably associated with the success of this association on the field. Because of the extreme severity of the resulting disease, the diffusion of this new DNA-B component at a larger scale would represent a major threat to tomato culture in Burkina Faso, Africa and the world in general. The use of a metagenomic approach, allow the generalization of our findings to full agro-ecological settings. Besides confirming previous species discovery, species yet undescribed in Burkina Faso along with completely new begomovirus species were described. The inspection of the virus-plant and virus-virus associations networks allow to uncover strong links existing between the viral corteges associated to groups of cultivated and uncultivated plants. These findings emphasized the necessity to consider full agro-ecological settings plant diversity rather than only crops in order to understand and prevent geminiviruses associated diseases. Globally, our results highlight the necessity to carry on the ongoing plant disease monitoring work and the inventory of viral populations associated with cultivated and uncultivated plants in order to understand the functioning of natural geminiviral community and the impact of human practices on the emergence of viral disease.
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Alassane Ouattara. Épidémiologie moléculaire des géminivirus responsables de maladies émergentes sur les cultures maraîchères au Burkina Faso et en Côte d'Ivoire. Biologie végétale. Université de la Réunion; Université Ouaga 1 Professeur Joseph Ki-Zerbo (Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso), 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017LARE0052⟩. ⟨tel-02408328v2⟩



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