Characterisation of Nuclear Envelope-Associated Proteins (NEAPs) in Arabidopsis thaliana

Abstract : During evolution, eukaryotic cells have acquired a nuclear envelope (NE) enclosingand protecting the genome, which is organized in chromatin, a structure wrapping DNAaround histone proteins. The NE is composed of two membranes: on the nucleoplasmic side,the Inner Nuclear Membrane (INM) and on the cytoplasmic side, the Outer NuclearMembrane. The NE allows communication between both compartments through Nuclear PoreComplexes and bridges the cytoskeleton to the nucleoskeleton through the LInker ofNucleoskeleton to Cytoskeleton complex. Thus, the nucleoskeleton associated with the INMis needed to transmit signals to the nucleus and induce changes in chromatin organisation andultimately gene expression.A novel family of NUCLEAR ENVELOPE ASSOCIATED PROTEINS (NEAPs)proposed to be new components of the plant nucleoskeleton has been recently evidenced inthe model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. AtNEAP proteins are encoded by a small gene familycomposed of three genes and are targeted through a nuclear localisation signal to the nucleuswhere they are anchored at the INM through their C-terminal transmembrane domain.AtNEAPs also possess several long coiled-coil domains reminiscent of the lamin structure inanimals. This thesis aimed at performing a functional analysis of AtNEAPs using T-DNAinsertion and CRISPR/Cas9 mutant lines. The AtNEAP interactome was investigated bymolecular approaches (Yeast Two Hybrid), which indicated AtNEAP interactions with eachother to form homo or hetero-dimers; as well as in vivo localisation and co-localisationcoupled to image analyses (apFRET, acceptor photobleaching Fluorescence ResonanceEnergy Transfer), which confirmed interactions with the transcription factor (TF) AtbZIP18.AtNEAP specific antibodies generated during this study were used to confirm expression invivo. Altogether, results indicated that AtNEAPs are part of the nucleoskeleton, with a role inanchoring TFs at the INM to maintain nuclear morphology and chromatin organisation.
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Gwénaëlle Détourné. Characterisation of Nuclear Envelope-Associated Proteins (NEAPs) in Arabidopsis thaliana. Vegetal Biology. Université Clermont Auvergne; Oxford Brookes University, 2019. English. ⟨NNT : 2019CLFAC021⟩. ⟨tel-02356175⟩

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