Diversité et structure spatio-temporelle des communautés protistes dans deux systèmes côtiers aux conditions trophiques contrastées : cas de la Manche Orientale et la Méditerranée Occidentale

Abstract : In marine ecosystems, protists play an important role as primary producers, predators or symbionts. Therefore studying their diversity and metabolic activity is fundamental for understanding the functioning of marine ecosystems. In order to achieve this goal, molecular approaches were coupled with microscopy analysis for an in depth examination of microbial communities diversity in two contrasting ecosystems (Eastern English Channel EEC and Mediterranean). The first study, conducted in the EEC, allowed to establish a precise overview of eukaryotic protists diversity over 4 years (from March 2011 to July 2015) and to examine the influence of environmental variables on their temporal distribution. The innovative approach used during this study was to sequence simultaneously rRNA and rDNA. This double targeting allowed calculating the rRNA : rDNA ratio and demonstrate that it could be an useful and significant parameter for measuring the relative cellular activity of the microbial community. We also showed the feasibility of using this rRNA : rDNA ratio as an indicator of ecological transitions of iconic microbial species (e.g. bloom of Phaeocystis globosa). Thus, calculation of this ratio for each individual OTU provided additional information that are essential for a better understanding of the functioning of the ecosystem and the influence of biotic parameters on the structuring of microbial communities, in particular in the context of global change. The second study was also conducted in the EEC on sequencing data obtained during the period 2011-2013. It aimed to highlight the relationships between eukaryotic parasites and other taxa as well as environmental parameters. This study revealed un unsuspected diversity of symbionts / decomposers in the EEC, and their importance for structuring microbial community and influence seasonal succession. More specifically, correlation network analysis showed the predominance of inter-taxa relations, over those between OTUs and abiotic parameters, and the central position of symbionts / decomposers in these relationships. This study highlighted the complexity and importance of microbial inteactions in the structuring of microbial communities while providing crucial information to better understand underlying lechanisms. The last study was conducted in the Western Mediterranean , at four stations located in the Golfe du Lion, subject to the influence of the Rhône River, over a period of two years. This study aimed to provide the most exhaustive list of eukaryotic protist diversity and to evaluate its spatial variability in relation with environmental variables. This study further underlined the effect of the Rh^ne on the structuring of microbial communities, particularly in the eastern part of the Golfe du Lion. Overall, thesis workhas reinforced, through combined aproaches of microscopy and molecular biology, our knowledge of the functioning, taxonomic diversity and succession of microbial species, in relation to environmental parameters, of two contrasted marine ecosystems.
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Sara Rachik. Diversité et structure spatio-temporelle des communautés protistes dans deux systèmes côtiers aux conditions trophiques contrastées : cas de la Manche Orientale et la Méditerranée Occidentale. Ecosystèmes. Université du Littoral Côte d'Opale, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018DUNK0476⟩. ⟨tel-02178690v2⟩

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