Évaluation d’une stratégie de préconditionnement de cellules stromales mésenchymateuses pour le traitement des grands-brulés

Abstract : Since the 1980’s, little progress has been made in the management of major burns, in spite of several research advances in the field of skin tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Developed in 1975, Cultured Epithelial Autografts (CEA) are the last-in-date significant breakthrough, allowing patient survival in most critical cases. However, patients still have to cope with debilitating sequelae including hypertrophic scars, skin fragility, immunometabolic dysfunctions, chronic pain and post-traumatic stress disorder. Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (MSC) have raised an increasing interest during the past 50 years due to their trophic and immunomodulatory properties. Recent findings about their high plasticity to external stimuli have fostered the development of new targeted therapies known as “preconditioning strategies”. This PhD work thus aimed to assess a MSC preconditioning strategy for the treatment of major burns using CEA. The present work was divided into three main experimental parts. First, in vitro experiments were developed in order to set up the preconditioning strategy, and revealed the interesting role of both interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and substance P (SP). Then, both effectiveness and mechanism of action of these preconditioning modalities were assessed in vitro and in vivo, either using MSC or their secretory products. It was thus shown that IL-1β could potentiate MSC effectiveness through the promotion of pro-migratory, anti-inflammatory and pro-remodeling activities. This effect was shown to be partly mediated by the TGF-β1 signaling pathway. At last, this preconditioning strategy was evaluated in a third degree burn rat model mimicking the surgical treatment applied to severe burn patients. Despite technical hurdles limiting CEA engraftment, anti-inflammatory and pro-angiogenic properties of MSCs were confirmed in this model. These preliminary results underline the potential of a preconditioned MSC therapy in wound healing. Additional preclinical studies are now required to corroborate the benefit of such a therapy in major burns.
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Brice Magne. Évaluation d’une stratégie de préconditionnement de cellules stromales mésenchymateuses pour le traitement des grands-brulés. Biologie cellulaire. Université Paris-Saclay, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018SACLS558⟩. ⟨tel-02162635v2⟩

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