Étude des stratégies de mouvement chez les parasitoïdes du genre Trichogramma : apports des techniques d’analyse d’images automatiques

Abstract : Parasitoids of the genus Trichogramma are oophagous micro-hymenoptera widely used as biological control agents. My PhD is about the phenotypic characterization of this auxiliary's movement strategies, specifically the movements involved in the exploration of space and the search for host eggs. These phenotypes have great importance in the life cycle of trichogramma, and also of characters of interest to evaluate their effectiveness in biological control program. Trichogramma being very small organisms (less than 0.5 mm), difficult to observe, the study of their movement can take advantage of technological advances in the acquisition and automatic analysis of images. This is the strategy I followed by combining a methodological development component and an experimental component. In a first methodological part, I present three main types of image analysis methods that I used and helped to develop during my thesis. In a second time, I present three applications of these methods to the study of the movement of Trichogramma. First, we characterized in the laboratory the orientation preferences (phototaxis, geotaxis and their interaction) during egg laying in 22 trichogram strains belonging to 6 species. This type of study requires the counting of a large number of eggs (healthy and parasitized), it was developed a new dedicated tool in the form of an ImageJ / FIJI plugin made available to the community. This flexible plugin automates and makes more productive the tasks of counting and evaluation of parasitism rate, making possible screenings of greater magnitude. A great variability could be highlighted within the genus, including between strains of the same species. This suggests that depending on the plant layer to be protected (grass, shrub, tree), it would be possible to select trichogramma’s strains to optimize their exploitation of the targeted area. In a second time, we characterized the exploration strategies (velocities, trajectories, ...) of a set of 22 strains from 7 trichogramma species to look for traits specific to each strain or species. I implemented a method for tracking a trichogramma group on video recorded on short time scales using the Ctrax software and R scripts. The aim was to develop a protocol for high-throughput characterization of trichogramma strains movement and to study the variability of these traits within the genus. Finally, we conducted a study of the propagation dynamics in trichogramma group from the species T. cacoeciae, by developing an innovative experimental device to cover scales of time and space greater than those usually imposed by laboratory constraints. Through the use of pictures taken at very high resolution / low frequency and a dedicated analysis pipeline, the diffusion of individuals can be followed in a tunnel longer than 6 meters during a whole day. In particular, I was able to identify the effect of the population density as well as the distribution of resources on the propagation dynamics (diffusion coefficient) and the parasitism efficiency of the tested strain.
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Victor Burte. Étude des stratégies de mouvement chez les parasitoïdes du genre Trichogramma : apports des techniques d’analyse d’images automatiques. Microbiologie et Parasitologie. Université Côte d'Azur, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018AZUR4223⟩. ⟨tel-02145220v2⟩

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