Caractérisation de l’activation des cellules dendritiques plasmacytoïdes par les virus HTLV-1 et HTLV-2 et de son importance dans la symptomatologie viro-induite

Abstract : HTLV-1 (Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1) is the etiological agent of two main diseases: the adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) and the HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis, which are characterized by different immune phenotypes. While the ATLL is linked to an immunosuppressive state, the HAM/TSP is linked to a pro-inflammatory state in patients. The mechanisms contributing to the development of these two diseases in the HTLV-1 infected individuals are poorly understood. Type I interferon (IFN-I) has ambivalent functions in the organism. While this cytokine is an effector of early immune responses, several studies have reported a negative impact of this cytokine during chronic infections. The plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are the main producers of IFN-I in vivo, and can produce high amounts of this cytokine after the recognition of virally infected cells. We have shown that pDCs are able to recognize HTLV-1-infected cells, thus leading to the production of IFN-I. pDCs’ triggering is mediated by the accumulated viral particles at the surface of the infected cells, within a carbohydrate-rich structure, previously described as the viral biofilm. The nature of the extracellular matrix itself seems to regulate IFN-I production by pDCs, since the exposition of an asialylated Galβ(1-3)GalNAc glycan at the surface of the HTLV-infected cells reduces the IFN-I production. We also observed that HTLV-2 (a close relative of HTLV-1)-infected cells, in contrast to HTLV-1-infected cells, tend to induce a lower production of IFN-I after being recognized by the pDCs but a greater maturation of the latter. Finally, we have shown that pDCs’ frequency in the blood and their ability to produce IFN-α after an ex vivo stimulation is equivalent in healthy donors, asymptomatic HTLV-1 carriers and HAM/TSP patients. This result contrasts with previous studies which demonstrated that blood circulating pDCs’ frequency is reduced in ATLL patients and that pDCs from HTLV-1 infected individuals have a reduced ability to produce IFN-α after stimulation. Thus, dysregulation of the frequency and functionality of pDCs could contribute to the development of one disease or the other.
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Nicolas Futsch. Caractérisation de l’activation des cellules dendritiques plasmacytoïdes par les virus HTLV-1 et HTLV-2 et de son importance dans la symptomatologie viro-induite. Immunologie. Université de Lyon, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018LYSEN067⟩. ⟨tel-02124859v2⟩

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