Les impacts de la réduction de la teneur en sel sur la conservation et les écosystèmes bactériens des chipolatas

Abstract : Salt content plays a key role in meat product preservation since it inhibits bacterial growth. However, dietary guidelines aim to reduce salt content in food. The objectives of this study were (1) to characterize the bacterial community of raw pork sausages and the spoilage phenomenon of these products under salt reduction conditions and (2) to correlate the organoleptic deterioration of the products to modifications in bacterial community.We first characterized the raw pork sausages spoilage by sensory and physicochemical analysis. The work demonstrates that spoilage intensity is greater under a reduced salt content, particularly when sausages are packaged under modified atmosphere. The spoilage is characterized by the production of sulfur, sour and rancid off-odors, a decrease in pH of the sausages and an increase of exudate production.At the same time, we described the bacterial diversity of spoiled sausages through 16S rRNA analysis. Abundance of bacterial species was quantified by qPCR. With these methods, we were able to distinguish the dominant population from the subdominant population. Reducing salt content causes an abundance imbalance between these two populations. This imbalance does not result from an increase of the dominant species; it results from a decrease in abundance of subdominant species.To understand the roles of these bacterial populations, we analyzed their metabolic activities by RNA-Seq approach. The works highlight a high metabolic activity of the subdominant species. When the salt concentration is lowest, the expression of Serratia sp. genes involved in the fermentation of pyruvate to produce ethanol, CO2 and acetate is most important. The acetate production may be connected to the spoilage defaults observed (decrease in pH, exudate production and sour off-odors).These studies reveal that salt reduction impacts the bacterial community of raw pork sausages (abundance and metabolic activities) and this disruption compromises the organoleptic quality of the products.
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Lysiane Fougy. Les impacts de la réduction de la teneur en sel sur la conservation et les écosystèmes bactériens des chipolatas. Alimentation et Nutrition. Université Paris-Saclay, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016SACLA039⟩. ⟨tel-02104865⟩

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