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Dynamiques de synchronisation de lasers bifréquence à état solide et DFB soumis à une réinjection décalée en fréquence : applications en photonique micro-onde

Abstract : The control of the frequency difference between two lasers is a cross-cutting challenge in many fields of photonics, either for the generation of high-purity heterodyne microwave beatnotes, or in metrology and telecommunication experiments. The advances of the comprehension of laser dynamics under various couplings has allowed to develop stabilization methods based on optical injection. We study here theoretically and experimentally a mechanism called frequency-shifted feedback (FSF), which allows to precisely control the frequency difference between two lasers in several situations.First, the FSF method is applied to a dual-frequency dual-polarization solid-state Nd:YAG laser, in order to lock the phases of its two orthogonal polarization modes. A model of rate equations is used to precisely describe the experiment, and allows to highlight partial "bounded phase" synchronization regimes. Furthermore, we show that in some cases this synchronization can subsist even with chaotic oscillations of the intensity and phase. The behavior of the laser under FSF is studied for varying values of the frequency detuning, injection rate, possible injection delay, and mode coupling in the active medium. Finally, we find that the inclusion of a phase-amplitude coupling (non-zero linewidth enhancement factor) is needed in the model to account for experimental observation. This leads to the development of an ad-hoc technique to measure the low value of this usually neglected factor in solid-laser lasers.The FSF stabilization mechanism is then applied to a custom semiconductor component embedding two DFB lasers overs InP. In spite of a more complex coupling scheme and the large effective delays into play, phase locking of the two lasers is possible. Due to the delay, locking bands appear when the detuning changes, and this behavior can be replicated using a numerical model. This model also permit to determine working conditions minimizing the influence of uncontrolled experimental optical feedback phases. Finally, as this system allows to control a microwave phase over an optical carrier, it can be integrated in a resonant loop not unlike an opto-electronic oscillator (OEO). We realized an oscillator generating a self-referenced, single sideband microwave signal over an optical carrier, with encouraging phase noise performances. In this case, it seems that most of the techniques that exist for standard OEO can be reused.
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Aurélien Thorette. Dynamiques de synchronisation de lasers bifréquence à état solide et DFB soumis à une réinjection décalée en fréquence : applications en photonique micro-onde. Optics / Photonic. Université Rennes 1, 2018. English. ⟨NNT : 2018REN1S059⟩. ⟨tel-02062296⟩

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