Etude des processus de biominéralisation des sulfures de fer et des mécanismes de piégeage du nickel : contexte des sédiments de mangrove de Nouvelle-Calédonie

Abstract : The aims of the present work were (i) to study the behavior of iron and nickel in the biomineralization of iron sulfides by (thio)sulfate-reducing bacteria and (ii) to estimate the influence of open-cut mining activities on microbial communities development in mangrove sediments in New Caledonia. To achieve these objectives, incubation experiments were conducted under anoxic conditions with the (thio)sulfate-reducing bacteria (i.e. Desulfovibrio capillatus) and a consortium of sulfate-reducing bacteria native mangrove sediments of New Caledonia. These experiments were carried out with different Fe(III) precursors (i.e. goethite, ferrihydrite and ferric citrate) and in the presence of structural or soluble nickel. The results show that the sulfate-reducing bacterial activity leads, in all experiments, to the formation of mackinawite (FeS). This iron sulfide precipitates as nanosized crystallites that increase in size with incubation time. When nickel is present in solution, the total soluble amount can be substituted to iron (i.e. replacing 4 mol%) in the structure of mackinawite. Thus, the formation of a small proportion of mackinawite scavenged total soluble amount of nickel initially present in solution (e.g. FeS:Ni ratio of 1). This sequestration mechanism appears to be stable over time (no nickel was released in solution) and accelerates the crystal growth of mackinawite, leading to the stabilization of this mineral. These results highlight the effective role of sulfate-reducing bacteria in the biomineralization of iron sulfides such as mackinawite and in the sequestration of nickel, suggesting a stabilization of this element in mangrove sediments and limitation of its bioavailability. These results could explain the absence of negative impact of open-cut mining activities on the sulfate-reducing bacterial communities present in New Caledonia.
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Maya, Devi Ikogou. Etude des processus de biominéralisation des sulfures de fer et des mécanismes de piégeage du nickel : contexte des sédiments de mangrove de Nouvelle-Calédonie. Sciences de la Terre. Université Pierre et Marie Curie - Paris VI, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016PA066705⟩. ⟨tel-01954804v2⟩

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