Descriptive and explanatory tools for human movement and state estimation in humanoid robotics

François Bailly 1
1 LAAS-GEPETTO - Équipe Mouvement des Systèmes Anthropomorphes
LAAS - Laboratoire d'analyse et d'architecture des systèmes [Toulouse]
Abstract : The substantive subject of this thesis is the motion of anthropomorphic systems, and more particularly the bipedal locomotion of humans and humanoid robots. To characterize and understand bipedal locomotion, it is instructive to study its motor causes and its resulting physical consequences, namely, the interactions with the environment. Concerning the causes, for instance, what are the principles that govern the organization of motor orders in humans for elaborating a specific displacement strategy? And then, which physical quantities can we compute for best describing the motion resulting from these motor orders ? These questions are in part addressed by the proposal of a mathematical extension of the Uncontrolled Manifold approach for the motor control of dynamic tasks and through the presentation of a new descriptor of anthropomorphic locomotion. In connection with this analytical work, comes the problem of state estimation in anthropomorphic systems. The difficulty of such a problem comes from the fact that the measurements carry noise which is not always separable from the informative data, and that the state of the system is not necessarily observable. To get rid of the noise, classical filtering techniques can be employed but they are likely to distort the signals. To cope with this issue, we present a recursive method, based on complementary filtering, to estimate the position of the center of mass and the angular momentum variation of the human body, two central quantities of human locomotion. Another idea to get rid of the measurements noise is to acknowledge the fact that it results in an unrealistic estimation of the motion dynamics. By exploiting the equations of motion, which dictate the temporal dynamics of the system, and by estimating a trajectory versus a single point, we then present maximum likelihood estimation using the dynamic differential programming algorithm to perform optimal centroidal state estimation for systems in contact. Finally, a multidisciplinary reflection on the functional and computational role played by the head in animals is presented. The relevance of using this solution in mobile robotics is discussed, particularly for state estimation and multisensory perception.
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François Bailly. Descriptive and explanatory tools for human movement and state estimation in humanoid robotics. Robotics [cs.RO]. Université Paul Sabatier - Toulouse III, 2018. English. ⟨NNT : 2018TOU30174⟩. ⟨tel-01927768v3⟩

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