Diversité chimique et potentiel antimicrobien d’huiles essentielles de plantes libanaises

Abstract : Antimicrobial resistance is a major global problem and a growing concern. The development of new conventional antimicrobial agents replacing inefficient ones is certainly one of the most promising strategies aiming to reduce its extent. But this solution remains unfortunately momentary. In fact, any antimicrobial agent will eventually be defeated by the spread of resistant strains favored by the selection pressure phenomenon exerted by the agent itself. It is therefore necessary to consider all possible alternatives to conventional approaches in order to diversify the antimicrobial arsenal.Essential oils used by plants in their defense against pathogens are naturally composed of a mixture of components making them able to act on several targets of the organism. Thus, even the most resistant pathogens will not be able to escape their actions and the development of resistance will be therefore limited.In this thesis, Lebanese aromatic plants selected based mainly on ethnopharmacological indications were collected from various Lebanese regions. They were subsequently hydrodistillated producing twenty essential oils analyzed by GC / MS and eventually by NMR, and assessed against a range of pathogens that cause skin infections in humans. The analysis of the chemical composition of the EOs was marked by the isolation and characterization for the first time of santolinoïdol, a bisabolene type sesquiterpene that was found in the essential oil of Achillea santolinoides subsp. wilhelmsii. Almost half of the EOs have been active on at least one pathogen. The origin of the activity of the most active oils, the effect of their associations with commercial antimicrobials and their cytotoxicities were also investigated.
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Layal Fahed. Diversité chimique et potentiel antimicrobien d’huiles essentielles de plantes libanaises. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Museum national d'histoire naturelle - MNHN PARIS, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016MNHN0005⟩. ⟨tel-01873133⟩

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