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Les activités climatiques saisonnières sur Mars et leurs impacts sur la morphologie

Abstract : Mars surface has been considered like a currently inactive planet for a long time. Nevertheless, numerous active phenomena have been observed during the last few years such as: gullies, dust devils, dark and bright flows. Most of them are also unexplained and their formation processes are unclear under present Mars conditions. The aim of this PhD is to study some gullies to try to understand their formation processes on Mars at the present time. For this, martian spacecraft data were analyzed and experimental studies were performed. Thanks to HiRISE (High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment) images and HiRISE DTM (Digital Terrain Models), a morphological study was carried out. This study has been completed by a spectroscopic study of the surface thanks to CRISM (Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars) data. Experiments were also performed with a mix of liquid and sand to try to understand the pressure impact on martians flows. Morphological and spectroscopic studies on the southern hemisphere of Mars lead us to conclude that: i) Gullies are seasonal. They have different morphologies, sizes, timing of activities, orientations, and slopes. ii) Gullies are young. They appear and disappear on present-day. Some of them are active since 100 years. iii) CO₂ frost seems to be a good candidate for gullies creation but a participation of liquid water can’t be excluded in some cases. iv) Insolation variations and material accumulations in the upper part of the flow influence the gullies activity. v) Sinuosities can be created by another fluid than liquid water today on Mars. Experiments performed during this PhD demonstrate that: i) Water flow in granular surface and sub-surface triggers higher morphological impact under Martian pressure (~ 7mbar) and Earth pressure (~ 1000 mbar). ii) Exotic sediment transport can be observed at low pressure (~ 7mbar): “levitation” (with gas) and saltation. The morphology and dynamics are influenced by 3 main parameters: the sediment thickness, the temperature variations between the surface and the flow and the amount of flow material. Several seasonal phenomena were analyzed with different approaches. This allowed us to observe and interpret present-day flows and exotic processes. More data and new experiments at low pressure (in particular with CO₂) will help us to better constrain and better understand the formation conditions of current seasonal activities on the Mars surface.
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https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-01865381
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Submitted on : Monday, September 3, 2018 - 9:11:18 AM
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Kelly Pasquon. Les activités climatiques saisonnières sur Mars et leurs impacts sur la morphologie. Planétologie. Université Paris Saclay (COmUE), 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018SACLS025⟩. ⟨tel-01865381v2⟩

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