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Mécanismes impliqués dans l'atrophie et la récupération musculaire après immobilisation chez le rat. : Rôle des altérations de la matrice extracellulaire.

Abstract : Skeletal muscle is the main reservoir of body amino acids. Thus, muscle atrophy induced by immobilization can lead to a weakening and to a lengthening of recovery periods, leading to elevated healthcare costs. Surprisingly, a worsening of tibialis anterior (TA) muscle atrophy prevailed after cast removal and thus delayed recovery. The aim of my Ph.D was to understand mechanisms underlying the worsening of TA atrophy during early recovery by studying i) the muscle structure and phenotype, ii) the composition of the extracellular matrix (ECM), iii) proteolysis and apoptosis, and iv) the signaling pathways via integrins. Rats were subjected to hindlimb casting for 8 days of one hindllimb, the other leg served as control, and then were allowed to recover for 10 days. The worsening of TA atrophy appeared immediately after cast removal and correlated with i) a decrease in fiber crosssection area associated to fiber deformation, ii) a redistribution of myosin heavy chain isoforms, iii) an increase in apoptosis localized in the connective tissue, iv) a thickening of the endomysium during remobilization, v) some adaptations in collagen remodeling processes, and vi) a pronounced and sustained activation of the ubiquitin-proteasome proteolytic system (UPS) and of the apoptosome. We also showed an increase in the remobilized TA of mRNA levels vii) of tenascin-C and Sparc immediately after cast removal, and viii) of some autophagy markers, when atrophy stabilized. Finally, we showed an elevation of mRNA levels encoding ix) myogenic factors, and x) transmembrane integrins and their partners during TA immobilization and after cast removal. In conclusion, my Ph.D project showed that the worsening of the TA atrophy occurred early after cast removal, was associated with a significant remodeling of the structure and composition of the ECM and of the phenotype of muscle fibers, and may result from pronounced and sustained increase in the UPS and apoptosis. This work suggests that changes in the matricellular matrix molecules during remobilization could influence integrin-dependent signaling and muscle regeneration.
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Lamia Slimani. Mécanismes impliqués dans l'atrophie et la récupération musculaire après immobilisation chez le rat. : Rôle des altérations de la matrice extracellulaire.. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université d'Auvergne - Clermont-Ferrand I, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012CLF1MM21⟩. ⟨tel-01849811⟩

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