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Vers une modélisation des grands plans d’organisation de l’embryon d'Arabidopsis thaliana

Abstract : During embryonic development, the major body plans of the plant are implemented. This process gives rise to a mature embryo which possess all the characteristics of a young seedling and is associated with a morphological change. These two processes are stereotyped in Arabidopsis thaliana embryo development.Over the developmental process, the embryo shape switches from a globular form, with a radial symmetry, to a heart form with a bilateral symmetry. These changes are based on a differential cellular growth and on particular cell division plane orientation in the embryo, mechanisms that are tightly regulated and under control of molecular factors.If a number of cellular and molecular steps are known, the evolution of the symmetry and the acquisition of the specific embryo shape have not yet been explored.To understand the origin of the heart shape, we proceed to a detailed multi-scale description and quantification of embryo shape changes during embryo stages. We completed a collection of fixed embryo images with 35 embryos distributed along the embryo development over eight cell generations. The embryos have been digitized in 3D and cell segmented. From these images, embryo cell lineages have been reconstructed and their cell organizations characterized.The evolution of parameter measurements showed a progressive change of the shape. The change has begun at an early embryo stage where morphology still look like a globular form.To correlate the morphological change and the cells events, the division and the cell growth were inferred through measurements. The cell growth behavior changed in the globular embryo. Changes in the division behavior were also observed. The division plan orientations stopped to be stereotyped. Despite the variability, similar behaviors were observed over cell generations and also among precursor of tissues and organs of the embryo.The cell division behavior has been further analyzed by a search of the realized division rules which explain observations with a stochastic model of volume partition. A division rule based on a stochastic 3D surface area minimization has reproduced all observed division plane orientations depending on the volume repartition among daughter cells. The hypothesis of a stochastic division rule based on the cell geometry with a surface area minimization of surface passing through the mother cell centroid seemed to become apparent. But divisions in older cell generations suggested a progressive action of another factor on the division plane.The overall phenotyping the embryo early development should provide a framework for the analysis of molecular factors involved in the heart shape.
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Élise Raphaëlle Laruelle. Vers une modélisation des grands plans d’organisation de l’embryon d'Arabidopsis thaliana. Biologie du développement. Université Paris Saclay (COmUE), 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017SACLS074⟩. ⟨tel-01782397v2⟩

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