Identification des évènements génétiques impliqués dans la transformation maligne de la neurofibromatose de type 1

Abstract : Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a tumor predisposition syndrome caused by loss-offunction mutations in the NF1 tumor suppressor gene. Almost half of NF1 patients develop a specific type of benign peripheral nerve sheath tumor called plexiform neurofibromas. These tumors are mainly composed of Schwann cells in which the second NF1 allele is inactivated. Plexiform neurofibromas can give rise to malignant tumors called MPNST that are extremely aggressive sarcomas, resistant to therapy and which represents the first cause of early demise of NF1 patients. The molecular mechanisms underlying this malignant transformation remain enigmatic. Their identification is crucial for appropriate management of NF1 patients and development of new therapies. The goal of my PhD was to identify and characterize new signaling pathways involved in NF1 tumorigenesis. On the one hand, we highlighted the involvement of WNT pathway in NF1 tumorigenesis. On the other hand, a larger genomic approach led to the identification of the transcriptional repressor PRC2 (Polycomb Repressive Complex 2) inactivation in almost half of MPNST. We have generated various cell models, which facilitated the exploration of genes aberrantly expressed consequently to PRC2 loss-offunction. These models also allowed performing a pan-genomic lentiCRISPR screen searching for essential genes for PRC2-mutated tumor cells survival.
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Armelle Luscan. Identification des évènements génétiques impliqués dans la transformation maligne de la neurofibromatose de type 1. Génétique. Université Sorbonne Paris Cité, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016USPCB050⟩. ⟨tel-01734501⟩

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