Identités raciales et production du politique : la construction d'Haïti en tant que problème public dans l'imaginaire social caribéen : études comparées sur la Jamaique et la Guadeloupe

Abstract : This research project proposes a comparative analysis regarding the construction ofHaiti as a public problem in Jamaica and in Guadeloupe during the 2000s. A first factorof politicisation observed in both territories is based on the process of othering theHaitians through norms inherited from racist ideology and reflected in significantmobilisations against Haitian migrants. A second type of intervention in the politicalarena is conversely related to oppositional practices towards the colonial discourse andtends to present the first Black Republic as a symbol of common belonging shapedthrough struggles against Western hegemony. This source of identity-based conflicts islocated in the light of a racialised imaginary inherited from plantation society and at theintersection of the institutional models implemented after decolonisation in Jamaica andin Guadeloupe. By recounting the career of the “Haitian problem”, this survey reflectson the production of politics in the Caribbean space as from its margins. It aims atshowing how social and racial antagonisms expressed in societies founded on slaveryshape and fashion local political action. The first part sheds a light on the invention ofthe racialised representation of the “Haitian barbarian” in the Atlantic space and its useas a tool for legitimating the colonial order in Jamaican and in Guadeloupe by Westernpowers. The second part addresses the way in which these racial stereotypes werereactivated in both territories during the 2000s through the politicisation of Haitianimmigration as well as its placement on the policy agenda. Third, the interactions thatshape official narratives related to the “Haitian problem” are grasped through the lens ofpolicy instruments implemented in order to regulate, control and exclude Haitian bodies.Based on the Caribbean example, this research invites to discuss the way racialidentities, politics, power practices and governmentalities relate and are articulatedaltogether. It highlights the longevity of thinking patterns derived from colonialdomination, while emphasising the capacity of actors to renegotiate their contentthrough political conflict.
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https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-01728499
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Sébastien Nicolas. Identités raciales et production du politique : la construction d'Haïti en tant que problème public dans l'imaginaire social caribéen : études comparées sur la Jamaique et la Guadeloupe. Science politique. Université de Bordeaux, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017BORD0019⟩. ⟨tel-01728499v2⟩

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