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Physical analysis and numerical simulation of the separation phenomenon in over-expanded nozzle flow

Abstract : The present thesis, sponsored by a Franco-British cooperation program between the DGA and the DSTL, is devoted to the study of separation phenomenon in over-expanded nozzle. The aerothermodynamic of propulsion systems (missile, supersonic aircraft or launcher) is one the fields of fluid mechanics where important progress remains to be made in order to improve the performance of the engine, in terms of thrust, stability, reliability and pollutant (noise reduction, pollutant emissions, etc.). Since the flight conditions and the complexity of the characteristic phenomena are not reproducible on experimental benches, the use of numerical simulation would allow a thorough and precise study of the phenomena involved. The instationnarity observed in the separation of the boundary layer is becoming a main concern nowadays, especially the low-frequency phenomenon observed in some experiments, the use of large scale simulations (LES) would fit perfectly the computational power allocated on supercomputer compared to the prohibitive cost of direct simulations (DNS). Over-expanded nozzles are known to suffer from side loads, characterized by undesired unsteady forces orthogonal to the flow direction. They are caused by boundary-layer separation that causes significant and asymmetrical shock excursions within the nozzle. These phenomena have been studied experimentally and numerically. They emerge from a combination of complex unsteady flow phenomena, not yet fully understood, such as shock/boundary-layer interactions at the nozzle walls, detached mixing layers, and large regions of recirculating flow, all producing energetic motions at frequencies one or two orders of magnitudes lower than the characteristic frequency of the incoming turbulence. Capturing the phenomenon is a real challenge due to the need to resolve at least four decades of time scales, from the energetic scales of the incoming turbulence. This makes both direct (DNS) and wall-resolved large-eddy simulations (WR-LES) rather impractical. Instead, a wall-modelled LES (WM-LES) strategy is employed here, following the approach of Kawai & Larsson (2013) together with the eddy-viscosity modification of Duprat et al. (2011) so as to account for pressure gradients. The WM-LES is found to accurately reproduce the flow topology, as well as the spectral content obtained by a reference WR-LES. The development of a curvilinear code has allowed us to decrease the cost of computation of the simulations by using a stretched mesh close to the wall. The results obtained from the wall-modeled simulations (WM-LES) allowed us to capture and study the phenomena of instationnarity leading to the problem of side-loads. The WM-LES being about 40 times cheaper, the low-frequency motions may be statistically converged, enabling the study of the very low frequencies. The comparison of the modeled simulations with the resolved simulations and the experimental data confirms the good implementation of the model for LES computations of over-expanded nozzle flow. The characterization of the different phenomena is done through spectral analyses, carried out on the LES database allowing the highlight of the low-frequency phenomenon encountered in the over-expanded nozzle flow.
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Submitted on : Monday, January 22, 2018 - 3:39:23 PM
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  • HAL Id : tel-01689970, version 1


Arthur Piquet. Physical analysis and numerical simulation of the separation phenomenon in over-expanded nozzle flow. Fluids mechanics [physics.class-ph]. Normandie Université; Imperial College London, 2017. English. ⟨NNT : 2017NORMIR09⟩. ⟨tel-01689970⟩



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