"Poésie et traduction poétique en Italie pendant les années 30 et 40 du XXè siècle"

Abstract : This thesis focuses on a historical definition given by Cesare Pavese, when he defined the 30s and 40s of the twentieth century as the translation's period par excellence in Italy. The previous studies have looked extensively on the translation of novels and most of these researches choose English or French as principal language sources. This Phd thesis concentrates instead the analysis first of all on poetic translation and also on writing poetry as well as on poetic criticism ‘made' in the inter-war period until the late 40s. Poetry was incontestably the critical, translational and creative locus. Poetry was the main interest of the circles of Italian intellectuals in Florence and in Milan, in Parma, in Rome and in Turin also. Exchanges between artists, critics, poets and translators played mostly in the field of poetry, more or less without being particularly hampered by the fascist censorship, until the mid-30s. Poetry became a field of concrete action because it upsets language's syntactic order and this encourages a new conception and design of the reality, as well a way to fight every monolithic solution refusing opacity and incompleteness.Using an expression of Henri Meschonnic poetry is “against the maintenance of the order”, and presents itself as a form of deep commitment (in order words a form of “engagement”) that involves awareness and taking a stand against reality. In a poetic discourse the political element is closed involved. In fact we assume that “politics” is any attempt to fight for the welfare of man and every attempt to achieve the highest degree of freedom of every individual.The subject of criticism and translating poetry inevitably merge with poetry at all, and it is to consider that poetry is in any case always a translation. Poetry and its effects have become the axes of this study that tries to present consistently the voices of several people who were poets, translators and literary critics at the same time. The final part of this work concentrates on the birth of a new type of intellectual who is a poet, a translator, a critic and often also a publisher.We tried to show also what type of engagement may trigger the writing of poems and the practice of poetic translation, describing how deep and passionate activism may arise 'attending' poetry. Poetry is always proposed as a constellation of meaning constantly "building" as a presence never definitive. This enhancement of the unfinished contributes to the questioning of the subject's identity and to the pursuit of his salvation. Every poetic multiplication of hypotheses allows the opening of a lot of horizons. Offering her moving body poetry has been, even during Fascism, a lever of great indisciplinarity face to the rule settled by the dictatorship and it has been an unsuspected instrument of protest and resistance.
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Emanuela Nanni. "Poésie et traduction poétique en Italie pendant les années 30 et 40 du XXè siècle". Linguistique. Université de Grenoble, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012GRENL047⟩. ⟨tel-01680953v2⟩

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