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Caractérisation de l'interactome protéique des lésions de l'ADN : application aux lésions d'oxydation

Abstract : DNA is a molecule, which integrity is crucial for correct functioning of all the living organisms. However, it is regularly submitted to different stresses coming from endogenous or exogenous sources, which are able to generate various damages in its structure. Each damage may be recognized by multiple proteins, among which one can find repair proteins, inhibitors of DNA repair, transcription factors or proteins of chromatin remodelling. All these proteins constitute the interactome of a given DNA lesion.Cyclonucleosides are complex damages of DNA, which imply the base and the sugar residue at the same time, since an additional covalent bond is generated between these two. The consequence of the presence of this bond is the deformation of the double helix. For this reason, cyclonucleosides are not recognized by the base excision repair system, as the majority of the oxidative lesions are, but rather by the nucleotide excision repair system, which takes in charge bulky lesions.The objective of this thesis is to study the interactome of the cyclonucleosides, by using different biological models: eucaryotes, bacteries and archaea. By using the technique that enables trapping of proteins on the probes holding these lesions, we realised a screening of interactions between cyclonucleosides and proteins issued from the HeLa extracts. We identified the negative influence of cyclonucleosides on the recognition of its target sequence by the transcription factor DREF, as well as on the PARP1 interactions with DNA. These results were then confirmed by complementary techniques.We have also analysed the interactions between the bacterial glycosylase Fpg and cyclonucleosides: this enzyme possesses an affinity for these lesions, without however exerting an excision activity. This affinity is lower than the Fpg affinity for abasic sites, but it is higher than its affinity for non-damaged DNA. The role that could play cyclonucleosides in DNA is discussed following these results.Finally, a radioresistant archaea Thermococcus gammatolerans was studied. First, the formation of simple and complex oxidative lesions at the high radiation doses (2500 and 5000 Gy) was evaluated. 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine, which is an example of simple oxidative lesions, is formed in great quantity at high irradiation dose, and is rapidly repaired once the cells are put in their optimal culture conditions. As for cyclonucleosides, they are not detected even at very high doses of radiation, which raises questions concerning the formation of these damages. Next, two new glycosylases isolated from Thermococcus gammatolerans were studied: their mechanism of action, as well as their specificity against the substrates, were elucidated.The work accomplished during this thesis contributed to the better understanding of the interactions between cyclonucleosides and the proteins that interact with them. Also, the development of the protein trapping techniques on the damaged probes, which constituted an important part of this work, can be applied to study the interactome of other complex DNA lesions.
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Ewa Barbier. Caractérisation de l'interactome protéique des lésions de l'ADN : application aux lésions d'oxydation. Biologie moléculaire. Université de Grenoble, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013GRENV032⟩. ⟨tel-01680308v2⟩

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