Activités anti-biofilm de Lactobacillus vis-à-vis de Klebsiella Pneumoniae

Abstract : In the natural environment microorganisms are organized in aggregated communities called biofilms, which are particularly adapted to the survival in harsh conditions. The difficulties to prevent the formation or elimination of mature biofilms by conventional strategies have encouraged the development of new approaches inspired by competition mechanisms occurring between microorganisms within natural biofilms.In this work, we looked for anti-biofilm effects of beneficial bacteria belonging to Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium genus. We first tested the anti-biofilm effect of neutralized supernatants against both pathogens Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus epidermidis in a static experimental model. The few Bifidobacterium extracts tested led to an increase in biofilm formation by K. pneumoniae on abiotic surface, whereas the majority of the 140 strains of Lactobacillus exerted an inhibitory effect. Lactobacillus plantarum CIRM653 was selected for further experiments because its culture supernatant displayed major inhibition (70%). This extract was also capable of dispersing preformed biofilms of K. pneumoniae on abiotic surface, but also able to inhibit biofilm formation on biotic surface, independently of a bactericidal effect. The formation of mixed biofilm containing L. plantarum and K. pneumoniae in kinetic experimental models highlighted the biofilm structure defects associated with a decrease of K. pneumoniae biomass and an increase of that of L. plantarum, compared to a monospecies K. pneumoniae biofilm. Targeted transcriptional approach was used to assess changes in the expression of genes involved in biofilm formation by K. pneumoniae after contact with L. plantarum supernatant. Four genes involved in quorum-sensing (operons lsr) were under-expressed and three type 3 pili structural genes were over-expressed. The increase of functional surface located type 3 pili was validated by Western blotting and hemagglutination tests. This overexpression was probably responsible for the observed high level of adhesion capacity to abiotic surfaces of K. pneumoniae aggregates recovered after dispersion induced by L. plantarum.The behavior of the two strains was also tested in vivo in a K. pneumoniae murine intestinal colonization model with daily oral administration of L. plantarum. Viable cells counting of the pathogen in the animals’ feces showed that K. pneumoniae maintained high levels of colonization in the presence of L. plantarum, unlike the control (without Lactobacillus) where a gradual decrease was observed.Finally, we initiated the development of a tripartite experimental model allowing the combination of the two bacterial partners with epithelial cells in a continuous flow system. In parallel, the specific response of eukaryotic cells to these bacteria was addressed: L. plantarum exerted an inhibitory effect on the pulmonary epithelial inflammatory response induced by K. pneumoniae.In conclusion, these results highlight the discrepancy between in vitro anti-biofilm activity of L. plantarum and its in vivo behavior leading to increased dissemination of the pathogen. Substantial expertise of beneficial bacteria is therefore necessary to fully assess their benefit-risk ratio.
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Rosyne Lagrafeuille. Activités anti-biofilm de Lactobacillus vis-à-vis de Klebsiella Pneumoniae. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université d'Auvergne - Clermont-Ferrand I, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016CLF1PP03⟩. ⟨tel-01661354v2⟩

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