Devenir de mélanges de pesticides : étude des voies de biodégradation et développement d'une méthode préventive de bioremédiation

Abstract : The new-generation pesticides are often sprayed at low dosages and in mixtures. Up to now, a few studies focused on the effect of these mixtures on the biodegradation and the toxicity of each pesticide and/or metabolite. The aim of this Ph.D. work was to study the biotransformation of each herbicide of a mixture composed of mesotrione (β-triketone), nicosulfuron (sulfonylurea) and S-metolachlor (chloroacetanilide) applied on maize crops, as well as the toxicity (Microtox® test) of the herbicides/metabolites alone or in mixture. The identification of mesotrione metabolites by the strain Bacillus megaterium Mes11 and a differential proteomic approach suggested the role of nitroreductases in the first step of mesotrione biotransformation. This was confirmed by the structural and functional characterization of two enzymes able to biotransform mesotrione: the NfrA1 and NfrA2 nitroreductases, belonging to the NfsA-FRP sub-family of Nitro-FMN reductases. The biotransformation pathway of nicosulfuron has been elucidated for the strain Pseudomonas fluorescens SG-1 isolated from an agricultural soil and able to co-metabolically biotransform nicosulfuron. Two major metabolites resulting from the cleavage of the sulfonylurea bridge were identified, one of them (ADMP, 2-amino-4,6-dimethoxypyrimidine) presenting a 20-fold higher toxicity than the parent compound. The simultaneous biotransformation of mesotrione and nicosulfuron by the strain Mes11 was also qualitatively and quantitatively studied, showing a negative effect of mesotrione on nicosulfuron biotransformation, and a positive effect of S-metolachlor on mesotrione biotransformation. All parent compound mixtures tested resulted in synergistic effects towards A. fischeri, while metabolite mixtures (with or without S-metolachlor) were mostly synergistic or antagonistic. The last part of the PhD work was devoted to the development of a preventive technique for the treatment of pollutions caused by agricultural pesticides (bioprophylaxis). We made the proof of concept of this method by using a soil microcosm study. The simultaneous spreading of 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) herbicide and the strain Cupriavidus necator JMP134 able to mineralize it allowed a 3-fold reduction of 2,4-D half-life in soil, while preserving its herbicide activity.
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Louis Carles. Devenir de mélanges de pesticides : étude des voies de biodégradation et développement d'une méthode préventive de bioremédiation. Sciences agricoles. Université Blaise Pascal - Clermont-Ferrand II, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016CLF22759⟩. ⟨tel-01544582⟩

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