Analyse des instruments des politiques de la biodiversité : le cas de Natura 2000 en milieu littoral et marin

Abstract : Taking the Natura 2000 sites on the French coastal area as a case study, this work aims at strengthening the understanding of the practices in terms of local biodiversity conservation measures, analysed through the concept of public policy instruments : what are the instruments that are chosen, during both the planning and implementation phases? What are the factors influencing these choices? Our work combines two approaches. First, a quantitative analysis allows us to describe the measures that are provided in 113 management documents (Docobs) of coastal Natura 2000 sites. Through a method to select and average binomial logistic models, we identify contextual factors that influence the choice of instruments of action. Second, a qualitative analysis focuses on the coastal Natura 2000 sites in Brittany and paves the way to a better understanding of the implementation of the different instruments available for the management of the sites. Our results tend to show that the choices of instruments of action on each site are parts of the adjustments allowing the integration of the policy into a formal and informal institutional local context. In particular, the regulatory instrument seems to play a significant role in the implementation of this policy, but this role is sensitive to the local context of the site, especially the political context. We emphasize the association of some instruments to different types of ecosystems. Our results lead to question the autonomous nature of the Natura 2000 policy for the marine area. Our results also highlight the strengths and weaknesses of the different instruments of action in the implementation phase, especially with regards to the associated transaction costs. In the face of the constraints that we identify, we stress the importance of the operational complementarity of voluntary and regulatory instruments, of the commitment of local authorities and of the leading role of the Natura 2000 site managers.
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Michel Duhalde. Analyse des instruments des politiques de la biodiversité : le cas de Natura 2000 en milieu littoral et marin. Economies et finances. Université de Bretagne occidentale - Brest, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016BRES0008⟩. ⟨tel-01403848⟩

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