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Modélisation multi-échelles de la morphologie urbaine à partir de données carroyées de population et de bâti

Abstract : Since a couple of decades the relationships between urban form and travel patterns are central to reflection on sustainable urban planning and transport policy. The increasing distribution of regular grid data is in this context a new perspective for modeling urban structures from measurements of density freed from the constraints of administrative division. Population density data are now available on 200 meters grids covering France. We complete these data with built area densities in order to propose two types of classified images adapted to the study of travel patterns and urban development: classifications of urban fabrics and classifications of morphotypes of urban development. The construction of such classified images is based on theoretical and experimental which raise methodological issues regarding the classification of a statistically various urban spaces. To proceed exhaustively those spaces, we proposed a per-pixel classification method of urban fabrics by supervised transfer learning. Hidden Markov random fields are used to take into account the dependencies in the spatial data. The classifications of morphotypes are then obtained by broadening the knowledge of urban fabrics. These classifications are formalized from chorematique theoretical models and implemented by qualitative spatial reasoning. The analysis of these classifications by methods of quantitative spatial reasoning and factor analysis allowed us to reveal the morphological diversity of 50 metropolitan areas. It highlights the relevance of these classifications to characterize urban areas in accordance with various development issues related to the density or multipolar development
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Johanna Baro. Modélisation multi-échelles de la morphologie urbaine à partir de données carroyées de population et de bâti. Géographie. Université Paris-Est, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015PESC1004⟩. ⟨tel-01263031⟩

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