Le recours au principe de compensation écologique dans les politiques publiques en faveur de la biodiversité : enjeux organisationnels et institutionnels : cas des écosystèmes aquatiques marins et continentaux

Abstract : Biodiversity offset, as the last step of the mitigation hierarchy (avoid/reduce/offset), aims to address the current biodiversity loss crisis. The main goal of this PhD, which relies on the new institutional economics approach as a theoretical framework, is to understand the organizational and institutional issues of implementing biodiversity offsets policies for impacts on continental and offshore wetlands in Europe and the United-States. Hierarchical organizations (i.e. permittee responsible mitigation) often lead to little to no implementation of biodiversity offsets because the ecological effectiveness of case-by-case compensatory measures is unproven and the monitoring and control of numerous measures are difficult. In the United-States, the mitigation banking system aims to compensate for multiple small impacts on wetlands by carrying out restoration projects on fewer but larger wetland areas in order to reach the goal of no net loss of biodiversity. This hybrid organizational form is highly regulated and therefore stands halfway between hierarchical and market organizations. However, actors have individual and collective strategies that generate negotiations with consequences on economic development and biodiversity conservation stakes. The mitigation banking system leads to a decrease of transaction costs and a change of the actors bearing them. It seems that the evolution of the whole framework of biodiversity offsets policy implementation in the United-States leans toward an institutional complementarity between these two organizational forms rather than a disappearance of hierarchical organizations.
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Anne-Charlotte Vaissière. Le recours au principe de compensation écologique dans les politiques publiques en faveur de la biodiversité : enjeux organisationnels et institutionnels : cas des écosystèmes aquatiques marins et continentaux. Economies et finances. Université de Bretagne occidentale - Brest, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014BRES0028⟩. ⟨tel-01147245⟩

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