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Toward novel hybrid materials based on epitaxial graphene : controlling the formation of defects and using them for intercalation

Abstract : Epitaxial graphene grown on metal substrates is a promising platform for developing new hybrid systems, in which interface effects can be exploited to engineer novel properties. The insertion of foreign species between graphene and its substrate, referred to as “intercalation”, was shown very powerful in this respect. With the help of surface science tools, we have studied three graphene/metal systems, two of which are intercalated hybrid systems, and the other is a candidate for such a system: (i) graphene/Ir(111) intercalated with an ultrathin oxide, (ii) graphene/Ir(111) intercalated with cobalt (sub) atomic layers, and (iii) graphene on Re(0001). We found that some defects, especially wrinkles (linear delaminations of graphene from its substrate) and other curve graphene regions, play a crucial, yet unanticipated role in the intercalation process. We also found that the intercalation proceeds in a markedly different fashion under ultra-high vacuum and under atmospheric pressure. In the first system, oxygen-containing species were found to intercalate via the open end of wrinkles, to diffuse along then, and to form oxide nanoribbons along wrinkles accordingly. These ribbons modify the charge density of graphene, which also translates into substantial changes in the inelastic (Raman) optical response of graphene. In the second system, the efficiency of intercalation proved to be dependent on the graphene-metal interaction, which varies between differently oriented graphene domains on Ir(111). In this systems the entry sites for intercalated species could be identified, thanks to in operando observation of the process, as curved regions in graphene. Finally, graphene growth in a third system, graphene on Re(0001), was addressed in order to enable the future development of graphene/Re superconducting hybrids. In this system, we proposed two growth routes, one being a surface-confined process, on bulk single-crystal Re(0001), and the other being a temperature-induced segregation of carbon dissolved at high temperature in thin Re(0001) films on sapphire.
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  • HAL Id : tel-00986925, version 2

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Amina Kimouche. Toward novel hybrid materials based on epitaxial graphene : controlling the formation of defects and using them for intercalation. Materials Science [cond-mat.mtrl-sci]. Université de Grenoble, 2013. English. ⟨NNT : 2013GRENY027⟩. ⟨tel-00986925v2⟩

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