Caractérisation de la dispersion de traceurs passifs dans un écoulement côtier soumis à un régime macrotidal : Étude d'impact de la dynamique sur la qualité de l'eau le long du littoral du Nord-Pas de Calais et de la Picardie

Abstract : Characterizing the circulation and the coastal water quality evolution in the EEC is a major stake in many applications, particularly in a such bio-diversified region. The hydrodynamism plays an essential role in dispersal and mixing processes along the Nord-Pas-de-Calais shores. The EEC funnel physiology gives place to a tidal asymmetry which induces flood conditions stronger but shorter then ebb conditions, involving a residual northern drift, strengthened by the dominant south-west winds. This atypical context confers a complex structure of the coastal flow in a ROFI (Region Of Freshwater Influence). Using the hydrodynamical model MARS3D permitted to underline complexes phenomenon at regional scale and understand the genesis and dynamic of the so called, "coastal river". Thanks to high resolution modelling, circulation pattern inside Boulogne-sur-Mer harbor has been characterized. We identified an anti-cyclonic eddy, characteristic of the flood conditions and responsible of a rapid evacuation of tracers passing through the harbor. In opposition, during ebb, a southward drift traps passive tracers inside the port. This trapping effect can be limited or emphasized depending on wind directions and freshwater inputs. Besides, harbor morphological changes have been assessed in order to propose innovative solution to improve water quality inside the harbor. A similar work was developed in the "baie de Somme" (France) to understand water quality existing issues. Many activities are suspected to supply microbial contamination within the bay, especially the marshes sheep accused to be the major contributor in E. Coli. Assuming passive tracers as bacterial material we have studied dispersion and transport processes within the bay. This study permit to underline environmental conditions favorable to evacuate or maintain pollution emitted from several water sources supplying the bay. A current converging zone has been shownsurrounding the Crotoy area (were the water quality is bad), and simulations reveal an accumulation place for most of the different water bodies relative to the fresh water inputs. This work on circulation pattern in the Bay of Somme regarding environmental conditions, contribute to improve water quality studies and further sustainable coastal managements.
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Nicolas Jouanneau. Caractérisation de la dispersion de traceurs passifs dans un écoulement côtier soumis à un régime macrotidal : Étude d'impact de la dynamique sur la qualité de l'eau le long du littoral du Nord-Pas de Calais et de la Picardie. Sciences de la Terre. Université du Littoral Côte d'Opale, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013DUNK0342⟩. ⟨tel-00981658⟩

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