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Video for events : Compression and transport of the next generation video codec

Abstract : The acquisition and delivery of video content with minimal latency has become essential in several business areas such as sports broadcasting, video conferencing, telepresence, remote vehicle operation, or remote system control. The live streaming industry has grown in 2020 and it will expand further in the next few years with the emergence of new high-efficiency video codecs based on the Versatile Video Coding (VVC) standard and the fifth generation of mobile networks (5G).HTTP Adaptive Streaming (HAS) methods such as MPEG-DASH, using algorithms to adapt the transmission rate of compressed video, have proven to be very effective in improving the quality of experience (QoE) in a video-on-demand (VOD) context.Nevertheless, minimizing the delay between image acquisition and display at the receiver is essential in applications where latency is critical. Most rate adaptation algorithms are developed to optimize video transmission from a server situated in the core network to mobile clients. In applications requiring low-latency streaming, such as remote control of drones or broadcasting of sports events, the role of the server is played by a mobile terminal. The latter will acquire, compress, and transmit the video and transmit the compressed stream via a radio access channel to one or more clients. Therefore, client-driven rate adaptation approaches are unsuitable in this context because of the variability of the channel characteristics. In addition, HAS, for which the decision-making is done with a periodicity of the order of a second, are not sufficiently reactive when the server is moving, which may generate significant delays. It is therefore important to use a very fine adaptation granularity in order to reduce the end-to-end delay. The reduced size of the transmission and reception buffers (to minimize latency) makes it more difficult to adapt the throughput in our use case. When the bandwidth varies with a time constant smaller than the period with which the regulation is made, bad transmission rate decisions can induce a significant latency overhead.The aim of this thesis is to provide some answers to the problem of low-latency delivery of video acquired, compressed, and transmitted by mobile terminals. We first present a frame-by-frame rate adaptation algorithm for low latency broadcasting. A Model Predictive Control (MPC) approach is proposed to determine the coding rate of each frame to be transmitted. This approach uses information about the buffer level of the transmitter and about the characteristics of the transmission channel. Since the frames are coded live, a model relating the quantization parameter (QP) to the output rate of the video encoder is required. Hence, we have proposed a new model linking the rate to the QP of the current frame and to the distortion of the previous frame. This model provides much better results in the context of a frame-by-frame decision on the coding rate than the reference models in the literature.In addition to the above techniques, we have also proposed tools to reduce the complexity of video encoders such as VVC. The current version of the VVC encoder (VTM10) has an execution time nine times higher than that of the HEVC encoder. Therefore, the VVC encoder is not suitable for real-time encoding and streaming applications on currently available platforms. In this context, we present a systematic branch-and-prune method to identify a set of coding tools that can be disabled while satisfying a constraint on coding efficiency. This work contributes to the realization of a real-time VVC coder.
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https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-03709133
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Submitted on : Wednesday, June 29, 2022 - 4:21:11 PM
Last modification on : Monday, July 4, 2022 - 3:21:46 AM

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  • HAL Id : tel-03709133, version 1

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Mourad Aklouf. Video for events : Compression and transport of the next generation video codec. Networking and Internet Architecture [cs.NI]. Université Paris-Saclay, 2022. English. ⟨NNT : 2022UPASG029⟩. ⟨tel-03709133⟩

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