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Pour une modélisation linguistique de la radicalisation : étude de discours institutionnels et de discours du travail social

Abstract : The concept of radicalization was embraced by the French public authorities in the mid-2010s through various action plans aiming at detecting potential or proven cases of radicalization before the commission of jihadist-inspired terrorist acts. This institutionalization of the fight against radicalization relied on the territorial outlets of the State and on existing public policies (national education, child welfare, etc.). This thesis primarily investigates specialized prevention organizations, a sector at the crossroads of social labour and child welfare, that were called upon to detect so-called radicalized profiles, because of their presence in areas considered priorities by city policies. This work deals with the semantic-discursive characteristics of the lexeme radicalization in institutional and political speeches, as well as in social work speeches. The analysis uses two types of materials: 680 institutional speeches produced by the French government between 2013 and 2018 (containing the lemma radicalization), and ten semi-structured interviews conducted as part of an investigation of specialized prevention educators of the Occitanie Region. This freely accessible corpus constitutes an unprecedented resource for linguists, sociologists and political scientists, but also for students in social careers, as well as social workers wishing to analyse further the programmes of meaning and uses of the notion of radicalization. On the socio-discursive level, the contrastive study of these two corpora makes it possible to observe the production of a public policy and its reception within a sector that is directly concerned. From a linguistic point of view, it is a matter of developing and formalizing a process for analysing the notion of radicalization. The proposed model is based on an in-depth study of work in the sociology of social movements which aims to describe the mechanisms specific to radical trajectories, a synthesis of which is presented in the first part of the thesis. Three major observations emerge: (i) radicalization is a complex socio-political notion whose meaning escapes stabilization, (ii) radicalization is an intrinsically processual concept, (iii) radicalization is a multifactorial and multidimensional notion. Based on these findings, I designed an ad hoc linguistic analysis corpus that integrates three axes. On the first axis, I retrace the manifestations of the semantic and discursive instability of the notion of radicalization. I question, on the one hand, the meaning in language of the word radicalization, and, on the other hand, its discursive status of 'nomination'. For this purpose I probe into both referential and linguistic facets carried by the noun. The second axis questions the dynamics of the radicalization process and its representations in the two sources of discourse under study. The analysis emphasizes the different stages of the process, as well as the mechanisms of passage between these stages, modelled with a topologically inspired framework. The third axis focuses on the causal representations of radicalization. This representation sheds light on the causal factors that were judged decisive by institutional words and by social workers in order to explain the entering of individuals, their progression and their maintenance in radical engagement.More broadly, this work argues for a better knowledge of linguistic methods, insufficiently mobilized, and still too little known in other social sciences. It offers tools that shed light on the meaning and uses of complex and composite notions, notably through the contextualized study of their semantic profiles and the discursive processes that update them. This original interpretive path can be reproduced, in particular for disciplines whose object is to describe and model, from their discursive inscription, concepts related to socially sensitive themes.
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Submitted on : Thursday, June 16, 2022 - 11:39:08 AM
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Manon Pengam. Pour une modélisation linguistique de la radicalisation : étude de discours institutionnels et de discours du travail social. Linguistique. Université Paul Valéry - Montpellier III, 2021. Français. ⟨NNT : 2021MON30081⟩. ⟨tel-03696853⟩

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