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Écologie spatiale des chauves-souris frugivores (Pteropodidae) dans le contexte d’émergence de maladies virales zoonotiques

Abstract : Preventing the risk of epidemics has become a global health and economic issue, as demonstrated by the recent emergence of SARS-COV-2. This PhD aims to enhance knowledge about the space use of fruit bats (Pteropodidae) in human-modified environments. This work used satellite telemetry data from (i) the Lyle's fruit bat (Pteropus lylei), a reservoir species of the Nipah virus in Asia, and (ii) the hammer-headed bat (Hypsignathus monstrosus), involved in the circulation of the Ebola virus in Africa. The studied population of Lyle's fruit bat was already known to primarily forage in residential areas in a fragmented environment in Cambodia. The hammer-headed bat, for which patterns of habitat use was poorly understood, has been studied in a forest region in the Republic of Congo – an epicenter of a human Ebola epidemics in 2001–2005. In addition, data on direct catches of bats were collected in the latter region. This work highlights that the hammer-headed bat primarily forage in the agricultural lands that surround the small forestry villages. Individuals of Lyle's fruit bat visited more foraging areas in their preferred habitat during the night, while hammer-headed bats spent more time therein without increasing the number of areas visited. These two species benefited from human resources at the population level according to two individual movement strategies, which were likely adjusted according to the degree of environmental fragmentation. Individuals of hammerhead bat that spent more time in the mating site during the night avoided foraging areas in the forest, suggesting a role of agricultural lands in the establishment and the maintenance of the mating site. Over successive nights, both species had a higher probability to revisit a foraging area when they spent a lot of time therein during their last visit. In addition, a community of seven fruit bat species was identified in the studied region in Africa. The probability of occurrence of four species was higher in villages, while the other species were not influenced by the habitat. Overall, this work provides new insights into the space use of fruit bats during their nocturnal foraging and breeding activities. These data could be integrated into epidemiological modeling that aimed at improving knowledge on the interactions between fruit bats, humans or domestic animals, as well as pathogen transmission routes.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, May 11, 2022 - 11:33:50 AM
Last modification on : Thursday, May 12, 2022 - 3:50:05 AM

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  • HAL Id : tel-03664709, version 1

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Elodie Schloesing. Écologie spatiale des chauves-souris frugivores (Pteropodidae) dans le contexte d’émergence de maladies virales zoonotiques. Sciences agricoles. Université Montpellier, 2022. Français. ⟨NNT : 2022MONTG002⟩. ⟨tel-03664709⟩

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