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Développement d’une méthodologie preuve de concept pour la recherche et la détermination des fonctionnalités des flores microbiennes et des aliments fermentés

Abstract : Natural products have always been a successful source of new drugs. Nowadays, the health sector (animal and human) is still looking for new compounds from natural resources, especially those which can exhibit a beneficial effect on the biological processes involved in the age-related affections (which have become a public health issue). The plants have already been investigating for this application. However, other natural resources, such as the microbial diversity, remain unexplored for the bioactivity of their compounds. The non-pathogenic microorganisms, especially those that can be found in fermented foods and drinks, could be considered as an interesting and innovative source of new metabolites that could exhibit beneficial effects. Among those fermented foods, the raw-milk cheese appears to have a great potential, as a source of new compounds, due to its rich microbial diversity. An innovative strategy was developed in this thesis with the aim of discovering new bioactive metabolites in a raw goat milk cheese. Several cheese extracts were obtained via an extraction method, which efficacity has been validated. The effect of the extracts on aging has been determined on in vitro and on in vivo models. Their impacts on the longevity of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, and on its survival on an oxidative medium have been evaluated. Some extracts (freeze-dried cheese, apolar extract and three aqueous extracts) have demonstrated beneficials effects during these experiments. Moreover, two signalling pathways (DAF-2/ILR pathway and p38 MAPK pathway) were identified to be involved in the mechanisms of action of the extracts. In parallel, two extracts (apolar extract and an aqueous extract) demonstrated a capacity to reduce the ROS production in human leukocytes. Finally, the study of the chemical composition of the bioactive extracts has begun, with the aim of determining the compounds that could be responsible of the biological activity and deserve to be isolated and studied. All the results obtained during this thesis are promising. The study of the chemical composition of the extracts will be pursued, as well as the study of their biological activity, especially on other in vitro and in vivo models more specific to aging.
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Submitted on : Monday, May 9, 2022 - 1:16:33 PM
Last modification on : Tuesday, May 10, 2022 - 1:53:22 PM


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  • HAL Id : tel-03662498, version 1


Guillaume Cardin. Développement d’une méthodologie preuve de concept pour la recherche et la détermination des fonctionnalités des flores microbiennes et des aliments fermentés. Santé. Université Clermont Auvergne, 2021. Français. ⟨NNT : 2021UCFAC070⟩. ⟨tel-03662498⟩



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