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Fonction et physiologie : la notion de fonction dans la physiologie contemporaine

Abstract : This thesis proposes a theory of biological function which takes as a starting point the meaning given to it by physiology. The proposed theory is based on the following principles: (1) the notion of teleology has two dimensions which should be distinguished, its teleonomic dimension (goal-directiveness) on the one hand and its etiological dimension (the explanation of the origin by effect) on the other hand. (2) The epistemological singularity of living beings is that their existence is the consequence of a double causality, systemic and metasystemic, corresponding respectively to the causal relations operating within the system, and to the causes of the existence of these systemic processes, usually called “proximate” and “ultimate” causation. (3) The explanatory incompleteness of the systemic causation makes rational the postulate of the existence of metasystemic causation, regardless of its nature. The teleonomy inherent to biological systems corresponds to the convergence of systemic and metasystemic causations, which define the normativity of the system. The attribution of a function to a trait present in such a system consists in determining the causal role of the properties of this trait in the achievement of its normal state. The function then has a strong systemic and teleonomic explanatory value. Its etiological explanatory value is weak, limited to the postulate of the existence of metasystemic causality and of the contribution of systemic properties to this causality. Its strong aetiological explanatory value depends on its incorporation into a metasystemic theory, beyond the definition of biological function.
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Submitted on : Monday, March 14, 2022 - 3:59:26 PM
Last modification on : Friday, April 29, 2022 - 10:13:24 AM


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Etienne Roux. Fonction et physiologie : la notion de fonction dans la physiologie contemporaine. Philosophie. Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - Paris I, 2021. Français. ⟨NNT : 2021PA01H215⟩. ⟨tel-03608246⟩



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