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Evaluation des effets des systèmes de culture sur l'exposition aux pesticides des eaux à l'exutoire d'un bassin versant : Proposition d'une méthodologie d'analyse appliquée au cas de l'horticulture en Martinique

Abstract : Agricultural pesticides are still polluting surface water leading to environmental and sanitary issues. In order to anticipate and limit such pollution, method to assess the effects of cropping systems on water quality are highly needed. In tropical volcanic zones, knowledge on the impact of horticultural cropping systems is limited. The objective of this thesis is to design an assessment method suited to tropical volcanic horticulture. In this framework, we selected a small tropical volcanic horticultural catchment of 131 ha which was monitored from 2011 to 2013 for agricultural practices, stream discharge and pesticide pollution at catchment outlet. Due to the agronomic, geologic and hydrologic complexity of volcanic catchment, we design and agro-hydrological pesticide transfer model to assess the impact of agricultural practices at the catchment scale: WATPPASS. WATPPASS synthesizes knowledge on the agro-hydrological functioning of tropical volcanic catchment and simulates the effect of agricultural practices. WATPPASS correctly reproduced the hydrological functioning of the catchment and global pesticide trends at outlet. Differences between simulations and measurements are analyzed and discussed to propose model improvements. WATPPASS is a powerful tool which can be used for cropping system assessment at the catchment scale in order to improve water quality. Our methodology made it possible to identify pesticides for which actual uses are hazardous and combinations of factors leading to pesticides contamination at outlet.
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Charles Mottes. Evaluation des effets des systèmes de culture sur l'exposition aux pesticides des eaux à l'exutoire d'un bassin versant : Proposition d'une méthodologie d'analyse appliquée au cas de l'horticulture en Martinique. Agronomie. AgroParisTech, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013AGPT0075⟩. ⟨tel-03580262⟩

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