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Acteurs et projets de déploiement d’infrastructures de recharge pour voitures électriques : la construction de territoires de l’automobile électrique dans la région Hauts-de-France

Abstract : Since 2010, the promotion of electric mobility has been on the agenda of French and European governments. In France, new electric car related incentives have been introduced to remove financial and psychological deterrents. The deployment of an open charging infrastructure remedies a major psychological barrier called the "range anxiety". It refers to the fear of not being able to charge your car away from home in case of emergency. For that matter, the open charging infrastructure has experienced a strong growth within the last ten years. Our thesis in urban planning consists in documenting the growth of this equipment on a regional scale (Hauts-de-France region). Our thesis is divided into three parts. The first part describes the construction of a renewed automobile system around the electric car. The charging infrastructure, which is now part of the “sustainable city”, is the cornerstone of that system. To analyze this new service, we resorted to conceptual and methodological resources stemming from the “network literature”. This method combines the processing of quantitative data, used for maps, and qualitative data, gathered through semi-directive interviews featuring major regional actors, specialized in electric mobilities. The second part presents an overview of the charging stations’ distribution in the Hauts-de-France region. The infrastructure is an urban service, deployed by a multiplicity of actors in the most densely urbanized and populated areas of the region. Then, we dwelled on the organization’s decision-making processes for public charging networks. Those processes have directly influenced the implementation of the infrastructure network and its political goals. The infrastructure network’s deployment is considered an essential new public service for some, and paves the way for industrial growth for others. In the third part, we discuss the results we found in our second part. Based on our interviews, we classified the infrastructure project actors into nine categories and described their relationships. The 2016 French regional reform encouraged public actors to coordinate their charging offer. Network interoperability and the use of a common access badge are major tools meant to reinforce the consistency of regional electric mobility policies. This third part concludes with the presentation of some usage data that question the links between user practices and the location of charging stations. In a context of energy and mobility transitions, public authorities financially supported a new infrastructure intended for car drivers. The charging infrastructure extends local authorities’ scope from public transports to individual automotive mobilities. It also raises political and symbolic issues: the charging station enhances the action of public actors while promoting innovative local governments. In this thesis, the installation of an open charging infrastructure is considered an urban planning project integrated in the local planning documents and conceived as a new mobility service. Over the past ten years, infrastructure’s functionalities have increased substantially thanks to the joint action of local authorities and Tech companies. The charging station stands for the digital transition of mobility: as a connected object, it makes way for new uses of cars and energy.
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Submitted on : Thursday, January 13, 2022 - 8:31:08 AM
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Julia Frotey. Acteurs et projets de déploiement d’infrastructures de recharge pour voitures électriques : la construction de territoires de l’automobile électrique dans la région Hauts-de-France. Architecture, aménagement de l'espace. Université de Lille, 2021. Français. ⟨NNT : 2021LILUA012⟩. ⟨tel-03524044⟩

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