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Évolution et impact de l’œuvre positiviste d’Auguste Comte au Mexique entre 1867 et 1911

Abstract : This thesis considers how Auguste Comte’s positivist philosophy was put into practice in Mexico between 1867 and 1911. A French spiritual trend created and developed by Comte in the XIX th century, positivism is both a philosophy and a policy, steadily flourishing into a new religion. In this study, we will focus on the inherent educative ideas of the Comtean work as well as Herbert Spenser’s evolutionism, often described in the XIX th century Mexico as a form of positivism. Across the Atlantic, we have chosen to explore the introduction and development of positivist ideas within the Mexican educational system from 1867 onwards and the shifting from the educative to the political sphere during Porfirio Díaz’s dictatorship between 1877 and 1911. By the end of the French involvement, the positivist ideas were adopted and used by Gabino Barreda in order to reform the educational system as a whole, by means of the Organic Law on Public Education of December, 2 nd 1867. The law enabled the creation of the National Preparatory School, a real testing ground for positivist educational principles, whose main purpose was to form an intellectual elite who would allow fora rapid economic, political and societal growth. We will set out to examine the process by which positivist ideas passed from education to politics thanks to this new generation of young Mexicans. Furthermore, wewill delve into the drifts that stems from Porfirio Díaz dictatorial regime. Many a discrepancy arose between principles taught within the school system and the practical realities of society and economics of the time. We will endeavor throughout this analysis to distinguish between Comte and Spencer's ideas.
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Ombeline Anderouin. Évolution et impact de l’œuvre positiviste d’Auguste Comte au Mexique entre 1867 et 1911. Linguistique. Université d'Angers, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019ANGE0080⟩. ⟨tel-03486742⟩

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