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Situations d'inclusion de jeunes enfants avec des troubles du spectre autistique à l'école maternelle : évolution de la participation sociale des élèves et des représentations professionnelles des enseignants

Abstract : This thesis studies the situations of inclusion of young children with ASD enrolled in preschool. More precisely, this thesis has three objectives. First, this study aims to study the dynamics of the interaction between adults and pupils with ASD included in a nursery school, according to the proposed activity (free play and teacher-led activities). Then, the evolution of this dynamic was analyzed during a school year. Finally, the last objective was to better understand the evolution of teachers' professional representations of situations of inclusion. In this perspective, eight kindergarten classes welcoming a child with ASD were first observed. Then, the observation continued in (ou with?) two classes during a school year. In parallel to these observations, semi-directive interviews were conducted with teachers at three different times of the year in order to address their professional representations. The analysis of observational data from State Space Grids indicates that there is no difference between the activities for either the social participation of children or adult guidance. Moreover, the observations made during the year reveal that the situations of inclusion evolve in a singular way from one type of activity to another, and from one situation of inclusion to another. At the same time, the interview’s results show that professional representations change differently over time depending on the teacher and the inclusion situation in which they find themselves. These results show a diversity of situations of inclusion in preschool and question the training systems within the framework of inclusive schools. The conclusions of the various studies lead us to propose a three-dimensional analysis model of the situations of inclusion of young children with ASD in preschool.
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Julien Despois. Situations d'inclusion de jeunes enfants avec des troubles du spectre autistique à l'école maternelle : évolution de la participation sociale des élèves et des représentations professionnelles des enseignants. Education. Normandie Université, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019NORMR080⟩. ⟨tel-03465929⟩

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