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Relation entre le taux de transporteur de la sérotonine et les activités cérébrales des réseaux impliqués dans la dominance sociale, les émotions et le contrôle exécutif : une étude IRM-TEP combinée

Abstract : Serotonin, a neuromodulator present in almost the entire central nervous system, is involved in a large number of cognitive (e.g. learning), emotional and motivational processes. Its transporter, a presynaptic membrane protein, allows its recapture and thus modulates the action of serotonin within different cerebral networks. However, the relationship between serotonin transporter levels and brain networks involved in different aspects of behavior remains poorly understood. In this thesis, we used multimodal imaging, combining PET and fMRI to understand the links between serotonin transporter levels and the networks involved in processes of executive control, emotion processing and social rank learning. Free serotonin transporter levels were labeled using [11C]-DASB. In a first experiment, we studied the brain network involved in learning social rank during competition. A neuro-computational approach allowed us to highlight a modulation of social rank learning by the level of serotonin transporter present in the dorsal raphe nucleus. In addition, the level of the serotonin transporter in the dorsal raphe nucleus modulates the activity of a cerebral network involved in the learning by modulating the encoding of the chosen value. In a second step, we were interested in the network supporting the emotional perception from faces. The increase of the level of free serotonin transporter in the nucleus of raphe is associated with a hyper-reactivity of the amygdala during the perception of facial emotions. In addition, a study of the functional connectivity of the amygdala as a function of the level of transporter in the nucleus of raphe revealed an increase in connectivity between the amygdala and areas of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex when viewing emotions depicting fear and anger. Finally, we also studied the modulation of the functional connectivity of the executive, the salience and the default mode networks by the level of serotonin transporter present in the dorsal raphe nucleus. Only the executive control network, involved in attentional and mnemonic processes, shows an increase in its global connectivity with the decrease in serotonin transporter availability level of dorsal raphe nucleus.Overall, these results show that the availability of serotonin transporter in the dorsal raphe nucleus modulates, learning of social hierarchy rank, sensitivity to external stimuli such as emotions, as well as executive control and their respective brain networks. The study of these relationships is therefore of societal and clinical importance because of the strong link between the serotonergic system and anxiety disorders
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Submitted on : Wednesday, November 24, 2021 - 11:53:19 AM
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Rémi Janet. Relation entre le taux de transporteur de la sérotonine et les activités cérébrales des réseaux impliqués dans la dominance sociale, les émotions et le contrôle exécutif : une étude IRM-TEP combinée. Neurosciences. Université de Lyon, 2020. Français. ⟨NNT : 2020LYSE1251⟩. ⟨tel-03446013⟩

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