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L'enseignement de l'histoire de l'art à l'école secondaire sous la IIIe République française

Abstract : Our research focuses on the genesis of the teaching of art history in secondary schools in France. This precisely means its foundation and initial development under the Third Republic. We will first study the educational institution and the discipline of art history at the time, since the teaching of art history is closely linked to them. In Chapter I, the study will show the complexity of the secondary school system in France at the time. There is not only the distinction between male and female audiences, but also between classical education and modern education, so that the teaching of art history is not homogeneous across the board in terms of importance and aims. Chapter II will seek to reestablish the history of the institution of the discipline of art history in France, since secondary school education is concerned with the progress of its own discipline. At the time, the discipline of art history was in an initial phase, where its definition was still imprecise. Therefore, the purpose and practice of its teaching in secondary school are not clear. Then, our research will study the evolution of this teaching. In the first place, it is observed that it is never autonomous. That is to say, it is grafted onto other courses, that of drawing or history in particular. The role assigned to art history in the teaching of drawing differs from that in the teaching of history: in Chapter III, we will deal with several major reforms in the teaching of drawing, hence the fact that in drawing courses, art history is generally supposed to complement the drawing practice of an high culture; in Chapter IV concerning one art history in the teaching of history, it is noted that the more “the history of civilization” dethrones “the history of facts”, the more art history is considered, in history, to be essential for the understanding of general history. As the discipline of art history became more autonomous, its teaching in secondary school was also supposed to be autonomous by the reform of 1925. The study of students should focus on the works of arts themselves - in view of the importance of this event, we will dedicate Chapter V to it. To this, however, there is no independent training regime for special teachers. Teaching continues to be entrusted to drawing or history teachers. The study of the selection regime followed by these professors shows that a professor's competence in art history varies with the effects of the previously mentioned reforms. Chapter VI will focus on the educational means and tools for this teaching, as art books, photos, projection, walk and visit, etc. We are going to approach lastly "the teaching of music history at secondary school in France", since this teaching which is given almost in parallel with the teaching of art history, or sometimes merges with it, is not yet fully studied by historians. In addition to the school system or the so called discipline itself, artistic currents and the democratic trend on all social levels give their repercussions to this teaching, so that art now comes into play in civic education and knowledge in applied or industrial arts occupies the central place of the study of art history. At the same time, the movement of new pedagogy based on practice and observation at the beginning of the twentieth century also inspires this teaching.
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Contributor : Abes Star :  Contact
Submitted on : Tuesday, November 23, 2021 - 3:33:12 PM
Last modification on : Friday, April 29, 2022 - 10:12:57 AM
Long-term archiving on: : Thursday, February 24, 2022 - 7:55:57 PM


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  • HAL Id : tel-03443692, version 1



Ying Zhou. L'enseignement de l'histoire de l'art à l'école secondaire sous la IIIe République française. Histoire. Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - Paris I; Université des études internationales de Shanghai, 2021. Français. ⟨NNT : 2021PA01H002⟩. ⟨tel-03443692⟩



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