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Terres agricoles face à la ville : logiques et pratiques des agriculteurs dans le maintien des espaces agricoles à Antananarivo, Madagascar

Abstract : Urban centres in Africa have the highest growth rates in the world. They will be home to 64% of the continent's population by 2050 (Steel et al., 2017). Expanding cities put pressure on the agricultural spaces that surround them and which also feed them. As a result, agricultural spaces, often considered as land reserves for the expansion of cities, are the places of strong competition between uses. This sometimes acute competition for access to land leads to new power relations between agricultural actors and urban actors. In a context of plurality of rights over land, the question arises of the means available to farmers to secure their access to production factors and avoid their dispossession of land. Analyzing the impact of urban expansion on land use and on the distribution of land rights, is essential both for planning future cities and for securing citizens' land rights.Antananarivo, the capital of Madagascar, is a case study in the renewing of the relationship between urban and agriculture in a rapidly expanding city. Agriculture is at the heart of the urban system. It is a source of food and a key economic activity for urban dwellers, and it plays a major role in protecting the city from flooding. But agriculture is changing rapidly due to rapid population growth, a massive influx of young people into the labour market, an increase in socio-economic inequalities and high instability (political, climate, budgetary) (Razafindrakoto and al., 2015).To analyze these evolutions, the thesis develops a multidisciplinary action-research approach. The study looks at the different types of agricultural land recomposition in the urban area of Antananarivo: spatial, social and legal evolutions. The approach exploits concepts and methods derived from geography - main discipline of the thesis - but also from agronomy and economics. Spatial analyses show that agriculture is not only regressing in face of the expanding city; but is maintaining and transforming itself in contact with the urban structure. Qualitative and quantitative analyses based on household interviews indicate that urban farmers still hold farmland in 2017, but on very small areas and under strong real estate pressure. The lack of support measures for this urban agriculture and the lack of recognition of the land rights of agricultural households could contribute to a rapid decline in agricultural activities with significant impacts for the city in terms of food supply, flood protection and inequalities. These results invite discussion of future directions in urban planning and land reform to take into account these agri-urban issues.
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Laurence Defrise. Terres agricoles face à la ville : logiques et pratiques des agriculteurs dans le maintien des espaces agricoles à Antananarivo, Madagascar. Economies et finances. Institut agronomique, vétérinaire et forestier de France, 2020. Français. ⟨NNT : 2020IAVF0004⟩. ⟨tel-03399761⟩

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